Hausaufgaben und ihre Berechtigung (German Edition)

Calendar of training and events
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Zung , a. Zahlreiche psychotrope Substanzen wie z.

Alexa auf einem Fire Tablet verwenden

Panik kann bei schweren Depressionen oder schizophrenen Psychosen auftreten. Sie ist v. Sie bereiten in aller Regel nur selten differenzialdiagnostische Schwierigkeiten. Die Therapie von Angsterkrankungen setzt sich aus pharmakologischen und psychotherapeutischen Elementen zusammen. Im Fall einer unzureichenden Wirksamkeit einer Therapieform soll die jeweils andere Therapieform bzw.

Am wirksamsten erweisen sich in der Einzelbewertung Techniken zur interozeptiven Exposition, kognitiven Umstrukturierung sowie zur Exposition in vivo v. Diese Therapiegewinne lassen sich auch noch in einer Kontrolluntersuchung nach 1—2 Jahren in ca. Dieser Therapieansatz ist auch erfolgsversprechend bei Patienten, die von einer supportiven Psychotherapie nicht profitieren oder auf eine pharmakologische Monotherapie nicht ausreichend ansprechen Arch und Craske Eine fokussierte Expositionstherapie bei Agoraphobien besitzt ebenfalls eine sehr hohe Effizienz Marks et al.

Es muss aber bedacht werden, dass ca. Die Panic-Net-Studie konnte zeigen, dass sowohl Patienten ohne als auch Patienten mit komorbider Depression letztere tendentiell etwas weniger signifikant von einer kognitiven Verhaltenstherapie profitierten Emmrich et al. Freud ; Shear et al. Eine Metaanalyse dokumentiert eine hohe Effizienz Gould et al. Die erzielten Resultate waren auch nach 8 Monaten weiter stabil Linden et al. In einer Follow-up-Untersuchung war ein positiver Effekt auch 8—14 Jahre nach einer kognitiv-behavioralen Intervention unter kontrollierten Bedingungen noch gut nachweisbar.

Eine systematische Identifikation und Modifikation von negativen automatischen Gedanken und Bewertungsschemata ist grundlegendes Element, wobei individualtypische Merkmale der affektiven und kognitiven Informationsprozessierung bei sozialphobischer Symptomatik im Vordergrund stehen Clark und McManus Es liegt aber aus der Gruppe um Heimberg auch ein Individualformat vor Hope et al. Positive Resultate sind auch in einer Langzeitperspektive gesichert Fava et al.

In der Bewertung der einzelnen Therapiekomponenten stellt sich eine gute Vergleichbarkeit von Expositionstraining alleine mit einem breiteren kognitiv-behavioralen Verfahren dar Feske und Chambless , eine kognitive Restrukturierung ohne Exposition und Social-Skills-Training scheint der Kombination von Exposition und kognitiver Restrukturierung klar unterlegen Gould et al. Bei schweren sozialen Phobien kann die Empfehlung gegeben werden, einem Expositionstraining in definierten sozialen Situationen zuerst eine systematische Identifikation und Modifikation begleitender negativer automatischer Gedanken und Bewertungsschemata vorauszuschalten Taylor ; Fedoroff und Taylor Ein an diesen speziellen psychodynamischen Aspekten orientiertes Therapiemanual wurde entwickelt Leichsenring et al.

Die klassische Form der systematischen Desensibilisierung beinhaltet gleichfalls eine graduierte Stimulusexposition Wolpe Es existieren mehrere Verfahren einer direkten Konfrontation mit dem phobischen Objekt bzw. Zumindest bei unkomplizierten spezifischen Phobien kann mit wenigen Therapiestunden eine bedeutsame Symptomverbesserung bei ca.

Die Exposition kann jedoch hier durch eine Ohnmacht ungewollt unterbrochen werden. Es liegen bisher nur vereinzelte kasuistische Fallstudien zur psychodynamisch orientierten Behandlung von spezifischen Phobien vor Meyer und Maletic ; Rocah Ferguson et al.

Zu Duloxetin liegen positive Erfahrungen erst aus einer offenen Studie vor Simon et al. Wahl Empfehlungsgrad: B; Bandelow et al. Benzodiazepinen bei Angsterkrankungen s. Benzodiazepine Alprazolam, Clonazepam, Loazepam, Diazepam haben zwar einen anerkannten Stellenwert bzgl. Nach Bandelow und Baldwin Wahl: SSRI z. Mirtazapin oder Quetiapin erwogen werden Bandelow et al. Paroxetin akut: Pollack et al.

Sertralin akut: Allgulander et al. Escitalopram akut: Davidson et al. Venlafaxin XR akut: Davidson et al. Duloxetin akut: Hartford et al. Wahl Bandelow et al. Keine der beiden Substanzen wird in der S3-Leitlinie empfohlen. Rezidivprophylaxe mehrere randomisierte, doppelblinde und plazebo- bzw.

Dementsprechend lautet die Empfehlung der S3-Leitlinie, dass Patienten mit einer Polytoxikomanie nicht mit Pregabalin behandelt werden sollen vgl. Es zeigt eine Wirklatenz von 10—14 Tagen. Die S3-Leitlinie empfiehlt Buspiron nur bedingt Empfehlungsgrad: 0 und auch nur, wenn Therapien des Empfehlungsgrads A oder B unwirksam sind oder nicht vertragen werden Bandelow et al. Rickels kommentiert allerdings, dass nur ca. Einigen Antipsychotika der 2. Quetiapin Simon et al.

Es liegen derzeit lediglich Erfahrungsberichte vor Crippa et al. Es wurden auch Daten zur Langzeitwirksamkeit bzw. Ergebnisse aus kleineren Studien mit Gabapentin Pande et al. Sie gelten daher als Medikamente der 1. Wahl bei der sozialen Phobie. Wahl angesehen. In einer Langzeitperspektive muss darauf hingewiesen werden, dass therapeutische Effekte sich nicht selten erst nach Monaten einstellen.

Bei mangelnder Therapieresponse oder Therapieresistenz bestehen einige weitere, wenngleich nicht unter kontrollierten Bedingungen validierte pharmakologische Optionen. Daten aus einer plazebokontrollierten Studie weisen darauf hin, dass auch diese Patientengruppe beispielsweise von Escitalopram profitieren kann Alamy et al. Marks et al. In der Langzeitperspektive musste aber ein differenzielles Entwicklungsmuster festgehalten werden. Plazebo ausgeschlichen werden Barlow et al.

Bruce et al. Die kontrollierten Studien von Kobak et al. Zu einem recht vergleichbaren Ergebnis war auch eine andere kontrollierte, aber nicht verblindete Studie gekommen, bei der Sertralin pharmakotherapeutisch eingesetzt wurde Blomhoff et al. Serotonerge Antidepressiva z. Glutamaterg wirksame Medikamente wie z. Es liegen erste Erfahrungen aus kontrollierten Studien mit z. Therapieabbruch zu bedenken.

Domschke und Deckert In der Behandlung der spezifischen Phobien muss aber im Vergleich zu den behavioralen Expositionsverfahren nicht nur eine klar geringere empirische Datenlage, sondern v. Auch das Trizyklikum Clomipramin weist den Evidenzgrad Ia auf, wird aber in der klinischen Bewertung als Mittel der 2. Wahl angesehen Empfehlungsgrad B. Wirksamkeitsprofil und Nebenwirkungsspektrum, Dauer bis zum Wirkeintritt, erzielte Therapieresponse vs. Ihnen als Mittel der 1.

Wahl Empfehlungsgrad 0 beurteilt. Moclobemid gilt als Mittel der 2. Wahl klinischer Konsenspunkt. Kontrollierte Studien zur Kombination von KVT und Pharmakotherapie haben zwar bei den meisten Angstgruppen mittlerweile einen beachtlichen Evidenzgrad z. Im Vergleich zur Pharmakotherapie bzw. Psychotherapie als Monotherapie ist aber die empirische Datenlage noch weniger umfangreich, die Leitlinien geben bei Therapieresistenz eine Kann-Empfehlung klinischer Konsenspunkt. Forschungsbedarf im Vergleich zur Behandlung von affektiven Erkrankungen besteht v.

Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Living reference work entry First Online: 13 December Download reference work entry PDF. Angst kann integrales Symptom fast jeder psychischen Krankheit sein. Angst manifestiert sich stets auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen, auf einer subjektiven Ebene in Form bestimmter Kognitionen z. Auflage erschienen ist. Somers et al. Kopfschmerz, Schwindel , Kardiologen z. Brustschmerz, Tachykardie oder Gastroenterologen z. Phobien In den meisten epidemiologischen Untersuchungen rangieren die spezifischen Phobien an vorderster Stelle.

Unterschiedliche Angsterkrankungen zeigen hinsichtlich des Ersterkrankungsalters ein differenzielles Risiko Kessler et al. Diese Dynamik von der Erwartungsangst hin zur Panikattacke ist in experimentellen Untersuchungen nachvollziehbar Richter et al. Open image in new window. Diesen Zusammenhang von reifer konfliktbedingter Genese vs.

Glutamaterges System Eine Beteiligung des Glutamat-Neurotransmittersystems ist als sehr wahrscheinlich anzunehmen. Serotonerges System Eine Beteiligung des serotonergen Systems wird durch die Ergebnisse der Stimulation mit m-CPP und Fenfluramin nahegelegt, die einerseits mit einer Angstzunahme, andererseits mit einer normalen Prolaktinantwort einhergehen. Dopaminerges System Liebowitz stellten die Hypothese auf, dass die soziale Phobie durch eine dopaminerge Hypofunktion gekennzeichnet sei. Die Panikattacke weist einen typischen Crescendoeffekt auf, erreicht nach ca.

Durch Vermeidung gelingt in der Regel eine ausreichende Angstkontrolle. Subtypisierungen von Phobien beziehen sich neben der Unterscheidung von einfachen vs. Davidson et al. In beiden Systemen ist die diagnostische Wertigkeit nichtsituationsbezogener, also unerwartet auftretender Panikattacken hervorgehoben. Die ICD definiert die soziale Phobie analog.

Pressespiegel zu wissenschaftlich unredlichem Verhalten

Gastrointestinal Ulcus pepticum. Immunologisch Anaphylaxie Systemischer Lupus erythematodes. Soziale Phobie Sie ist v. Spezifische Phobien Sie bereiten in aller Regel nur selten differenzialdiagnostische Schwierigkeiten. Erstere orientieren sich am allgemeinen kognitiven Schema- Modell , wie sie Beck et al.

Systematische Desensibilisierung Die klassische Form der systematischen Desensibilisierung beinhaltet gleichfalls eine graduierte Stimulusexposition Wolpe Allerdings sind die unterschiedlichen Wirk- und Nebenwirkungsprofile zu beachten Vor- und Nachteile in Tab. Wahl: TZA z. Rezidivprophylaxe ist in einer Reihe von doppelblinden und plazebo- bzw. Rezidivprophylaxe konnte in mehreren doppelblinden und plazebo- bzw.

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Allgulander C, Mangano R, Zhang J et al b Efficacy of venlafaxine ER in patients with social anxiety disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparison with paroxetine. Allgulander C, Hartford J, Russell J et al Pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder: results of duloxetine treatment from a pooled analysis of three clinical trials. Allgulander C, Nutt D, Detke M et al A non-inferiority comparison of duloxetine and venlafaxine in the treatment of adult patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

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Clark DM, Salkovskis PM, Hackmann A et al A comparison of cognitive therapy, applied relaxation and imipramine in the treatment of panic disorder. Clark DM, Ehlers A, Hackman A et al Cognitive therapy versus exposure and applied relaxation in social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry A Google Scholar. Craig BAD How do you feel — now?

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Davidson JR First-line pharmacotherapy approaches for generalized anxiety disorder. Davidson JR, DuPont RL, Hedges D et al Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of venlafaxine extended release and buspirone in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder. Frau Kadenbach hat darauf hingewiesen, dass insbesondere im Bereich der Agrarpolitik erkennbare Fortschritte bei der Fehlerquote festzustellen sind. Das ist sehr richtig, und das ist sehr erfreulich. Das korreliert nicht zwingend miteinander.

Ich habe dazu vorhin schon Einiges gesagt. Ich glaube, dass das sinnvoll ist und dass wir das unbedingt angehen sollten. Ich will das hier noch einmal sagen, ich habe das auch schon bei der Vorstellung des Jahresberichts getan: Das ist ein gemeinsamer Erfolg. Den haben wir alle gemeinsam erzielt. Es gab mehrere Wortmeldungen zu den Agenturen. Agenturen leisten eine wertvolle Arbeit, aber wenn es irgendwo zu Fehlentwicklungen gekommen sein sollte, haben wir ein gewisses Problem der Aufsicht. Eine volle dienstrechtliche Verantwortung fehlt. Ob die das Parlament wahrnehmen will?

Oder die Kommission macht es, wenn Parlament und Rat das wollen. Eine Grundsatzdebatte zum Thema Agenturen der Zukunft mit steigender Verantwortung, mehr Personal und mehr finanziellen Mitteln erscheint mir deswegen angezeigt. Dies sind Regeln des Parlaments und des Rates. On the question by Mr Czarnecki — he is not in the plenary but maybe he will see my comments afterwards — I would like to focus your attention on two main points. Firstly, we all share the principles of responsibility, transparency and accountability.

So the Council is, in principle, providing the EP with all the recommendations, according to the Treaty, because, as we all know, the Parliament, on the recommendation of the Council, gives discharge to the Commission. In relation to the budget discharge procedure, I have to underline that the Court of Auditors did not identify any problems concerning the Council. The Council will soon adopt a mandate to start discussions with the Parliament on the procedure of cooperation between the Council and the Parliament on the discharge procedure.

Concerning the remark made by Mr Staes relating to the staff of the coordinating secretariat for the European agencies, I took careful note of this. Regarding the call of Commissioner Oettinger on the message to accelerate the work on the future agreement for the post— Multiannual Financial Framework, I have to say — and assure you — that, as the presidency, we will advance the work as much as possible during our term. The presidency will start work on the proposal as soon as it is presented by the Commission.

Of course, the possibility of an early agreement very much depends on the proposal itself and we will do our best to achieve as much as possible, with the close cooperation of the European Commission. To conclude, I would like to say that this debate has shown that we share many concerns. I can agree that an unqualified audit opinion of the Court for the management of EU funds remains an ultimate goal and that further improvements are still necessary.

Allow me also to repeat that all financial actors need to fully assume their responsibilities in this respect. The European Union budget is an important tool for achieving the policy objectives that we have agreed upon. We need results, notably in terms of growth, jobs and investment, stronger entrepreneurship and a more competitive Europe. In a situation where resources are scarce we cannot afford to misuse one single euro. Let us, through this debate, also send a clear message to the European citizens and taxpayers that the quality of EU spending is improving and that the European Union budget is on track in delivering concrete and expected results.

Nach dem Entlastungsbericht ist vor dem Entlastungsbericht. Die niedrige Fehlerquote beim Entwicklungsfonds zeigt, dass der Trend ein positiver ist. Das liegt unter der Wesentlichkeitsschwelle und geht in die richtige Richtung. Fehlerquote allein reicht aber nicht, das haben wir heute gelernt. Wir brauchen auch einen Mehrwert und eine gute Performance. Ja — Entwicklungspolitik ist nicht einfach. Es sind oft instabile Umfelder und schwierige politische Gegebenheiten.

On the individual issues which have been raised, I wanted to mention just two again: one is the voluntary pension fund, and one is the GEA transparency issue. Both of these are difficult issues, and both issues, I believe, require further work in the future if we are to get a final solution to these problems. But for the time being, I would hope that colleagues will support the wording on these issues in the discharge report. These words have been chosen very carefully to try and reach a compromise amongst all the different views we have in Parliament.

I hope colleagues will accept this wording as a good compromise, for the time being, until we get a solution in the future. That is right, of course — we should scrutinise our own budget, but also I think it is worth mentioning the hard work we put in to making sure our own budget is scrutinised. We should say that, perhaps, a little bit more often. Having scrutinised our own budget, I think we can say that our colleagues should grant discharge when we vote on it later today.

Wenn Sie es mit uns nicht machen, kommt es vielleicht nie mehr. Wir wollen nicht nur entlasten, sondern wir wollen auch mitreden bei dem, was in der Entwicklungshilfe gemacht wird. Die Einladung von Ihnen, Herr Kommissar, ist gekommen. Da gibt es einen erstaunlichen Schulterschluss. Diese Verhinderung ist keine gute Idee. Deswegen machen wir das. Heel zeker, ik denk dat we dat moeten doen. Mevrouw Panoyotova, we hebben een non-paper voorgelegd aan de Raad met de vraag: is dit een document om te bespreken, is het een onderdeel van een mogelijkheid om te komen tot een oplossing en te komen tot een kwijting van de Raad die die naam waardig is?

Dus ik vraag u: agendeer dat snel binnen de Raad zodat we die onderhandelingen kunnen opstarten. Ten derde naar de heer Zeller toe moet ik zeggen, ik ben heel blij met het verslag dat hij heeft voorgelegd. Er wordt genamed en geshamed , ook slechte zaken worden aangegeven, bijvoorbeeld dat schema voor jonge boeren.

Dat werkt niet. Er worden goede zaken aangegeven, bijvoorbeeld het Europese Jeugdfonds, zeer goede zaak. En ten slotte moet ik onderstrepen dat daar waar de zaken goed gaan met Europese gelden, dat we dat moeten blijven rondbazuinen. We zijn pro-Europees. We moeten tonen dat Europa er werkelijk toe doet. But I agree with the Commissioner and others who have said that assessing the error rates is not enough, and we should be able to evaluate the achievement and value added in European spending. So perhaps we should also, in particularly close cooperation between the Commission and this Parliament, start to analyse the opportunity costs.

I am referring to Rail Baltica. I am convinced that Members of Parliament could be helpful for the Commission to guarantee that kind of process. Again, thanks for enabling me to be part of this important process. I think there are three issues, as I try to conclude the eight joint undertakings. The first is a simple message to each of the joint undertakings within our remit: that citizens want to see results — the results of things that change in medicine, in the environment, in transport and airline policy, often innovations where citizens are not aware that the expenditure for those innovations has actually come from the European Union.

We need to brand that: we need to explain to people that it was European taxpayers who have helped those innovations. My second remark is that the joint undertakings must also explain their results within the industry. Thirdly, often when it comes to joint undertakings the expenditure profile is over a number of financial frameworks.

So it is really important to take up the message that the Commissioner gave to this House and the challenge he gave to this House today between the Parliament and Council: that we need to come to an early view on the future framework. We need to show, as Europe, that we can agree something, stick to our position and make sure that that expenditure is robust and strong to deliver the results we want to see. If we do that, I think there will be a good outcome. I do hope that the eight discharges which I proposed in my reports will be accepted by this House today, because I think it will send a very strong signal to the European Union and to industry that we can make results that ordinary people can see and understand.

Monica Macovei ECR. It is basically adding one word to paragraph 38, Amendment one. It refers to the agencies. Petri Sarvamaa PPE. Our commonwealth partners are prioritising deals with the EU, while Brexit creates uncertainty in our relationships. In ratifying this treaty today with Australia, the EU is broadening its reach down under. Trade negotiations with Australia are getting going.

Whether we in the UK want to remain a significant player with strong relations with our Commonwealth partners together with our nearest neighbours the EU, will be seen after March Daniel Hannan ECR. The decision has been taken. The United Kingdom wants to have wealthy and successful neighbours.

So machen wir Hausaufgaben - Die Emmys

The best outcome for us is that the remaining EU should have free trade agreements with friends and allies on every continent. If it had been more willing to take that approach over the 40 years of our membership, I suspect we would not have got to where we are now. Jan Zahradil ECR. Adam Szejnfeld PPE. Labour backs measures to cut the amount of plastic that ends up in our seas. That is during this one minute in which I am speaking. Last week, I had the pleasure of visiting the Bewiched Cafe in my constituency.

People using the Refill app collect points each time they refill their bottles until they win a stainless steel water bottle like this — much better than a plastic one. Plastic bottles make up a third of all plastic pollution in our seas, harming penguins, whales and fish. So well done to everybody who is showing true bottle in sorting this out. Deirdre Clune PPE. I am particularly conscious of the need to encourage more and to develop more recycling facilities for plastic and to develop products that are recyclable, and I think in this debate there needs to be a producer responsibility as well as a consumer responsibility.

Da tempo insistiamo sull'urgenza di realizzare un cambiamento radicale che vada dal design dei prodotti alla loro realizzazione, dall'utilizzo al loro riciclo, dall'eliminazione dell'obsolescenza programmata al recupero delle materie prime. Ma avremmo preferito leggere della messa al bando dell'incenerimento antieconomico e impattante dal punto di vista ambientale.

Rupert Matthews ECR. I have listened to what everyone has to say. The reason I was pleased to vote for this measure is largely because it gives a clearer definition of some of the concepts we are dealing with, with waste processing and recycling. We need better definitions — it helps everyone involved in this to do their job more properly. Krisztina Morvai NI. Sander Loones ECR. Zo gaat dat onder Europese christendemocraten, postjes uitdelen. Vandaag om twintig over twaalf hebben wij hier in het Europees Parlement gestemd over een zeer duidelijke resolutie over dit onderwerp met zeer scherpe taal.

Wat staat er in die resolutie? Dat dit lijkt op een staatsgreep. De Commissie wordt gevraagd om dit te opnieuw te bekijken en andere kandidaten moeten de kans krijgen om ook te kunnen solliciteren in een transparante procedure. Amper een half uur later, om twaalf uur vijftig, is de reactie van de Europese Commissie al binnen. En wat is die reactie? We zullen de resolutie van het Parlement volledig negeren. Dit is absoluut beschamend. Dit is beschamend en dan is men verbaasd dat het draagvlak voor de Europese Unie wordt aangetast.

De heer Selmayr zou zijn benoeming onmiddellijk moeten teruggeven. En wat mij betreft kan de heer Juncker onmiddellijk vertrekken. On the one side, there is my country, Hungary, with the Visegrad countries representing clearly the majority of European citizens. The majority of European citizens do not want migration. They want to protect Europe; they want to protect their own countries, their own villages and towns. The important thing is that they should speak up much more loudly. I understand, because I lived in communism. I know how it is: that there is oppression, there is fear, one can lose his or her job, there are hate speech laws, and so on.

But still, if we want to protect Europe and our countries and our communities together — Hungary, the Visegrad countries and the citizens of Europe — please speak up where ever you can and support Hungary. They want to destabilise our country; please help us. Es kann nicht sein, dass ich Ihnen jedes Mal das Wort abschneide. He said he wants a European sovereignty, as opposed to the national sovereignty that most Europeans want.

He wants a United States of Europe, while we European people want a Europe of nations: of independent nations with sovereignty. We, the majority of Europe, do not want migration; we want to save and to protect Europe and our communities. People are concerned about the security of the personal data they share on social networks and digital platforms. In order to find out whether Facebook and Cambridge Analytica breached data protection rules, enforcement authorities are investigating.

At the political level, the concerns are real and are being taken seriously. The debate here today gives another political signal from the European Union that we are worried. The rights to protection of personal data and privacy are enshrined in the European Charter on Fundamental rights. Those rights are the basis for the new EU data protection rules laid down in the General Data Protection Regulation, which will become applicable in a few weeks. The GDPR will help to protect personal data in the European Union, as it empowers persons to more easily find out what personal data companies hold about them and for what purposes such data are processed.

Furthermore, the GDPR provides for the possibility for data protection authorities to impose high fines. This will discipline companies to comply with the rules. Finally, the GDPR provides for a consistency mechanism. This ensures that the national data protection authorities coordinate amongst each other their decisions so that the European Union speaks with a single voice.

The Facebook and Cambridge Analytica case poses a lot of other fundamental questions than data protection: how can we protect democratic elections in times of massive digital disinformation or manipulation? Ministers agreed that free, reliable and pluralistic media underpin effective democracy, while digital disinformation on a massive scale has the potential to undermine it.

In this context, we have all seen the recent, but very timely, opinion of the European Data Protection Supervisor on online manipulation and personal data. The Facebook and Cambridge Analytica case has brought to the fore the importance of protecting personal data and privacy. The European Union has already recognised that importance in its new data protection rules, which provide tools to protect personal data in an effective manner.

The silver lining of this case is that adequate data protection is getting the political attention it deserves in other parts of the world as well. However, well-functioning data protection rules do not provide the full answer against manipulating elections. Other measures going beyond data protection are also necessary for safeguarding the rule of law and democracy.

Das Bauen eines wirksamen argumentativen Schreibens

New challenges to the rule of law and human rights, such as increased levels of disinformation, have to be counterbalanced by increased levels of media literacy. Current legislation is deemed to be sufficient in broad terms, but it must be better applied and supported by flanking measures, such as fact-checking websites, voluntary codes of conduct and intensified cooperation with service providers. This is already in place in several countries, as well as at EU level.

Let us use the protests about Facebook and Cambridge Analytica to advance the thinking on these fundaments of our societies. This case is too important to treat as business as usual. It is up to all of us to draw the right lessons from this Facebook-Cambridge Analytica scandal. There is work ongoing on three aspects of this scandal. First, personal data.

Up to 2. Second, broader effects on our democratic processes, elections included. Third, the criminal aspects of the case. I would like to share with you some details about the different aspects. Let me start with data protection. It has been said that the way we deal with privacy is the defining fundamental rights issue of our time. The Facebook-Cambridge Analytica case shows that protection of personal data can have a major impact on our democracy and on our elections. In this House, you have known the importance of these issues for many years and have adopted the data protection package, the so-called the General Data Protection Regulation, known under the acronym of GDPR.

We Europeans have got this right. We have foreseen that cases like this might happen and we wanted to be well-equipped. If there is one positive thing coming out of this crisis, it is the awareness about the importance of personal data protection that has been generated among ordinary citizens in Europe and around the world. All around the world, democratic countries are now looking at GDPR for inspiration.

The GDPR basically gives back control of personal data to the people. For instance, consent under the GDPR must be given by a clear and affirmative action and cannot be hidden among legalistic terms and conditions that nobody ever reads. Otherwise, you have the right to take your data with you when moving to another provider. Also, the GDPR reinforces the role of national protection authorities and gives them the possibility to impose quite dramatically high fines. The proposed e-privacy regulation further specifies the transparency requirements for browsers and apps, but aside from this positive effect, there is a serious situation which must be investigated and which must be prevented from occurring again.

I expect Facebook to cooperate fully and at the highest level of the company. There is no time to be complacent about this. All EU data protection authorities met in Brussels last week, and I am pleased they decided to launch a dedicated working group to social media, not only Facebook. On 25 May when GDPR becomes applicable, it is absolutely crucial that those business models that monitor huge amounts of our personal data are under full scrutiny. The time for leniency is over, and it is good that the data protection authorities are getting ready for it.

I am fully confident that European enforcers will make sure that Facebook fixes the mistakes and complies with the new data protection laws. Now it is very important that we offer help to those almost three million citizens affected by the scandal. The data protection authorities issued information last week about how their interest is protected and what they can do to ensure better protection of their privacy. I underlined that I expect Facebook to provide more detailed information and to cooperate fully with the Irish and British data protection authorities.

We must better and fully understand not only what happened to the data of EU citizens, but what is going on with this date even now. Of particular concern to me is the information to European citizens affected by the scandal. I was told that Facebook has started to inform people last week. Facebook also confirm that there could be more apps that harvested the personal data of users and those of their friends. I am also getting information from another source from the British ICO.

So I urged Facebook to take all necessary steps to mitigate any potential negative consequences for users in the future. Vice-President Ansip referred to the invitation by the European Parliament as a measure of rebuilding the trust. We also have to speak seriously about the impact this scandal might have on our democratic societies. By having access to personal information it seems that it was possible for various actors to micro-target citizens and help spread fake news and propaganda.

And this was all done in the maze of digital reality with zero transparency and without any consent from the users. This scandal is a wake-up call for all of us to start a serious debate on what role social media plays today, and what role they should play in our elections in the future. Traditional media are under very strict rules. Social media largely cooperate without any limits in this respect. And to be absolutely clear, social media created unprecedented opportunities to engage in a political debate and communicate directly with millions of voters, but they also created opportunities for some actors to manipulate and abuse social media.

So we need to understand better what the current situation in Europe is. Organising elections is largely in the remit of the Member States. However, as a Commissioner responsible for Union citizenship rights, I have invited the EU electoral authorities for a meeting at the end of April. I would like to hear from them how they handle social media and online advertising in their campaign rules.

I would like for all of us to act responsibly and not to jump the gun. Our response should not only be about Facebook. Our response should take into account the wider implications of an unregulated internet. Some steps have already been taken. As you might know, the Commission has initiated a code of conduct on hate speech such as racism and xenophobia, which has shown good results.

We adopted in February a recommendation on combating illegal content online. We will present next week a communication on how to tackle online disinformation, calling for more transparency, the promotion of diversity of information and credibility of information online. This will be a first opportunity to refer to the very first lessons to draw from the scandal in the official policy paper. We will also adopt a communication on artificial intelligence, which, among other actions, aims at debating and developing ethical principles in this respect. The Commission is carrying out a pilot project requested by the European Parliament on algorithmic awareness-building, which will focus on how algorithms can shape, filter or personalise information flows that may reinforce biases.

And last week, the Commission proposed the new deal for consumers package, which includes collective actions in case of mass harm situations. This can also be a strong enforcement tool in case of privacy violations. Finally, there are the important criminal law investigations in this case which need to be carried out by the national law enforcement bodies. To conclude, what is guiding our work in the Commission is a strong notion that the internet is not a space free of the rule of law.

The rules that apply offline also need to be fully respected in the online world, and we need to make sure our modern data protection laws are thoroughly applied. I look forward to hearing your views today and to continue working together on these important issues for our society. Estamos muy equivocados: lo que ocurre en el ciberespacio modifica el espacio; lo que ocurre en internet no se queda en internet. La mentira es tan peligrosa como el nacionalpopulismo, y normalmente es su instrumento.

All of a sudden, everybody understands that the digital revolution involves opportunities but also risks, and sometimes threats, of creating companies without corporate responsibility, of creating jobs without proper social protection and now about taking on board our personal data and using these for the purpose of economic and political manipulation. We just cannot accept this.

We need to regain control of our lives and Europe must take the lead in this. This is the right moment to invent our European way for the digital revolution and to regain digital sovereignty. And the only way to regain digital sovereignty is through full use of the European scale. We have taken the first step. We know now there is an important regulation in the hands of the Council on e—privacy, and we urge the Council to start a trilogue immediately, because the urgency is clear.

This has to do with how we deal with artificial intelligence. Most of all, we would make sure that all citizens can count on generalised digital skills to master the major developments which are taking place. Bovendien worden die gegevens vaak verkocht zonder medeweten van de persoon zelf.

Het recht op privacy en de bescherming van de digitale ruimte worden dus belangrijker dan ooit. Als wetgevers moeten wij onze burgers beschermen tegen het misbruik van privacy, maar we moeten ook de veiligheid van onze burgers verzekeren. Het recht op privacy mag geen absoluut recht zijn. Vandaag zien we heel duidelijk dat terroristen al te vaak door de mazen van het net glippen door het recht op privacy te misbruiken.

Onderzoeksrechters klagen dat ze vaak achter de feiten aanlopen. Ze kunnen bijvoorbeeld niet bij opgeslagen data zoals WhatsApp-berichten waarin terroristen aanslagen bespreken. Het recht op privacy laat deze terroristen toe om hun criminele activiteiten anoniem en ongestraft voort te zetten. Dit is een onbedoeld en ongewenst neveneffect van het recht op privacy. Daarom moeten we werk maken van een meer evenwichtige balans tussen privacy en veiligheid. Het kan immers niet de bedoeling zijn dat door bescherming van het ene het andere teniet wordt gedaan.

Privacy en veiligheid moeten naast elkaar kunnen bestaan, niet zonder elkaar. We moeten daarom verhinderen dat de digitale ruimte wordt misbruikt, of het nu door techgiganten is of door criminelen en terroristen. There are actually more users here than in the US, and I think Zuckerberg should be here. We should not be visiting him in the United States. He should be here. The European Parliament, yes, and also the European Data Protection authorities will scrutinise very closely whether the new Facebook privacy arrangements are compliant with all EU legislation, but we also need to take a very critical look at ourselves.

We talk the talk, but do we also walk the walk, Commission, Council and dear friends? Because amongst those who are voicing their outrage at Facebook are many who have consistently voted against stricter privacy protection, and continue to do so. I also note that the European data protection authorities have hardly responded to earlier reports on Cambridge Analytica and Facebook. It has been known since last year — why have they been so slow?

And despite the jubilation about GDPR, Member States have not nearly allocated the necessary means to the national data protection authorities to enable them to properly enforce the GDPR. And all subsequently scrapped by the European Court of Justice. Worryingly, decisions by the European Court of Justice are also being ignored. European citizens are left out in the cold, unprotected. Yes, the Facebook case is a wake-up call for all of us. Mr Zuckerberg, privacy is not dead. The social network might be based in the Silicon Valley, but it is active worldwide and, therefore, it also has responsibilities all across the globe.

I have said it before and will repeat it again, Mark Zuckerberg has to come to the European Parliament to answer our questions; a simple apology will not do. And it will not do either if the Commissioners now start to travel to the US and ask very nicely for audiences with Mr Zuckerberg. But it is also probably the best way — or only way — to we can stay in touch with most of our friends because they are on it. And despite the dramatic data leakages, despite the ads, despite all of that, we keep spending and wasting our time scrolling down our timeline. For many in Europe, Facebook has become a necessity, rather than a nice option.

That also means that Facebook has a huge responsibility, and so far it has shied away from taking up this responsibility. It has ignored even the most basic data protection rules, and that must be over, once and for all. Und Facebook ist doch keine neutrale Plattform! Zuckerberg ist das nicht irgendwie passiert. Wusste er doch seit um den Skandal, und er hat nichts unternommen! Warum hat er denn nichts unternommen? Ebenso auch Google, ebenso auch Amazon. Gibt es keine Garantien, dann muss es die entsprechenden Strafen hageln. There are many reasons why the Brexit referendum was won or lost, nothing to do with Cambridge Analytica was in any way material, and we should not confuse sales talk from an old Etonian with reality.

Nonetheless, hidden in this lengthy statement for debate, there is a very important, indeed vital, issue. Facebook is a monopoly. It maintains its monopoly by a variety of predatory business practices, and one simple illustration is that Facebook buys up potential competitors. This is what it did, for example, with Instagram, Messenger and WhatsApp. But there is more. Facebook makes its money — let there be no misunderstanding — from selling data and advertising targeted from that data.

Users do not have complete control over their Facebook data, and this cannot be good. And there is still worse. Such data does not get deleted when leaving, because these people had never joined Facebook in the first place. In its methods of collecting data, Facebook has become like a virus that you can never get rid of. This is not only distasteful, it is entirely shocking.

Zusammenfassung

The conclusion is clear. The problem is not Cambridge Analytica, the problem is Facebook. And the emphasis on Cambridge Analytica and election manipulation is a distraction. As I said, the fundamental problem is Facebook itself, the manner in which Facebook operates, its predatory business practices, its lack of ethical principles, and its monopoly.

In short, the monopoly that is Facebook needs breaking up. Roberta Metsola PPE. Sometimes it feels like we are living in a reality closer to that imagined by Orwell or Huxley than perhaps we would care to believe. This is an era where data is the new gold and where unscrupulous politicians and those who support them will use and abuse our personal information to make their propaganda appear as fact, to help swing elections and referenda and to essentially subvert democratic processes.

This scandal is not only about misuse of data. This is about systems that were built for good being used against us. We need to ensure that elections and referenda that look free on the surface are actually so in reality. We built our Data Protection Regulation and Privacy Shield precisely because of these threats, and our legislation must be able to face this test and any entity responsible for breaches must be held to account. We have to examine the loopholes that still exist and how these can be closed, because people expect privacy online and we must ensure that their expectations are met.

Cambridge Analytica has a lot to answer for. We have seen how they have abused our data in the US, the UK and many Member States, including my own, Malta, where we learned that thousands of people had been affected. The links between the abuse of data and our democratic processes must be investigated. I welcome the Parliament initiating such a process. Und doch ist Facebook nur die Spitze des Eisbergs. Dank der Datenschutzverordnung kann die EU ab Mai den Datenkapitalisten in der einzigen Sprache antworten, die sie verstehen: der des Geldes.

Aber die Datenschutzverordnung allein reicht nicht. Die bisherigen Regeln sind so veraltet, dass sie Akteure wie Facebook noch nicht einmal abdecken.

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Aber wie schon bei der Datenschutzgrundverordnung stehen die Mitgliedstaaten bei ePrivacy auf der Bremse und machen sich zum Handlanger der Industrie. Daniel Dalton ECR. If you fail in your service or in your duty of care or your protection of data, you have nowhere to hide — consumers will desert you. Users may agree to share their own data on the site, but they did not agree to their friends sharing their details on their behalf.

Facebook needs to vet its third—party apps much more carefully, and we need to get to the bottom of what Cambridge Analytica were doing and what effect they actually had on election results. But the key for us is to learn from this: the digital revolution has empowered billions around the world, but it is embryonic and barriers are being tested by all in this uncertain data—driven new world. The GDPR which comes into force next month is also testing barriers. That alone brings about much more protection of personal data. Facebook itself has said it will apply it globally.

So, 37 days before the GDPR is even being applied, it is already setting the global standard for protecting personal data. But I would also agree it is very important to understand that there is a missing brick in this wall, and that is the e-privacy regulation. We still need to fix that problem because the communication data needs to be protected in a specific way. It is important that Facebook is not only relying on ads, as they say is their business model, but is also delivering for trust by delivering solutions and actions in the way of how they do their business model.

We need to get more rules in place, especially also for consumer control to get connectivity across the platforms in order to have a choice. Allora dobbiamo domandarci: come reagire? Chi sta decidendo al posto nostro? Parlament ustanawia prawo, a nie je egzekwuje. Axel Voss PPE. Befragt man junge Leute, die mit dem Smartphone in einer mobilen Welt aufwachsen, so stellt man fest, dass es gegen Printmedien kaum Vorbehalte gibt. Man hebt sie sogar gerne auf, wenn sie mit Liebe und Sorgfalt gemacht wurden.

Daten dagegen kann man nicht besitzen, man kann sie nur verwalten, so die Erkenntnis. Im Kreise meiner Familie und Freunde habe ich einen Test gemacht. Mit Nichten, Neffen, Patenkindern im Teenageralter. Und alle wissen zu differenzieren: Informative, massenhaft hergestellte Drucksachen wie Prospekte, Werbesendungen etc. Ebenso wie individualisierte Druckprodukte , vom Bierdeckel bis zur Tapete. Hinzu kommen Podcasts zu B2B-Themen. Und es zeigt, wie die komplexe Zusammenarbeit von der Idee bis zur Realisierung optimal gestaltet werden kann. Das Buch wurde wie ein Film respektive ein Filmdrehbuch angelegt.

Papier erweckt Ideen zum Leben und verleiht der kreativen Arbeit taktile und emotionale Dimensionen. Hochwertige kreative Druck- und Verpackungsmaterialien, um z. Einkaufstaschen, Geschenkboxen, Covers oder Beilagen in sanfter Haptik und sattem Schwarz zu entwickeln. Den Veredelungsideen sind kaum Grenzen gesetzt: z. Foto: Mondi. Das sehen nicht nur wir so, sondern auch unsere Kunden, viele davon Markenartikler.

Papier wird von den meisten als hoher Kostenfaktor angesehen, der stetig steigt. Und das bei einem erschwinglichen Preis von 30 Euro pro Buch. Die Fotos stammen von Thomas Apolt. Denn erstklassige Zutaten sind ein Muss. Und schaffen unvergessliche Erlebnisse. Auch im Zeitalter der Digitalisierung gilt, wir als Menschen bleiben analoge Wesen. Gedruckte Kommunikation ist in Bezug auf Personalisierung ebenso flexibel wie digitale Kommunikation.

Das Zauberwort lautet: Customization. Alles im mobilen Zeitalter ist extrem schnell. Warum ist die Anpassung von Innovationen der Digitaldrucktechnologie scheinbar so langsam? Sein Blog valuetrendradar. Es war das erste Mal, dass wir uns alleine trafen. Sie hatte Tee und Kuchen vorbereitet. Otto Dorfner in Weimar. Nach meinem Abschluss als Buchbinder-Meisterin arbeitete ich in Berlin und konnte kurzzeitig den Schriftunterricht von Johannes Boehland besuchen.

Von da an war ich von Schriftkunst und Satzschriften begeistert. Von bis betrieb ich eine eigene Buchbinderwerkstatt in Frankfurt am Main. Stempel AG in Frankfurt am Main aus. Jahrhundert abgeschlossen. Doch es sollte sich im Jahrhundert noch weiteres und ganz bedeutendes tun. Geburtstag von Gudrun Zapf-von Hesse am 2.

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D German reparations? For European jews there are two version of Thalmud — how to live as jew. Dienstag, den Die wichtigste Subtypisierung betrifft die Unterscheidung in eine umschriebene vs. And thus able to offer technically savvy, highly efficient, cost-optimized and highly specialized.

Januar Im darauffolgenden Herbst, am 8. November , dem Zu diesem Anlass gab es eine Filmpremiere im Gutenberg-Museum. Die beiden arbeiteten seit an der Umsetzung. Das Besondere in der Beziehung von Gudrun und Hermann Zapf — beide lernten sich kennen und heirateten im Jahr — ist kaum durch Worte zu beschreiben. Museums-Direktorin Dr. Am Katharina Pieper und der Stiftung Schriftkultur e. Es lebe die Schriftkultur. Hans A. Testformen gab es keine, alles gelang auf Anhieb!

Seit stellte sie auf internationaler Ebene ihre Werke aus und erntete von allen Seiten Lob, Anerkennung und Bewunderung. Im Wohnhaus in Darmstadt werden, wie eingangs dargelegt, ihre Werke sorgsam bewahrt und inszeniert. Unaufdringlich, aber fulminant in der Wirkung. Wer immer dort sein darf, kommt aus dem Staunen nicht raus! Foto: Linotype. Bis in den Tod hinein.

Er durfte sich stets unbeschadet im Schatten seiner geliebten Frau sonnen. Ein Leben lang. Und er stand trotzdem immer im Mittelpunkt. Da stand und steht Gudrun Zapf-von Hesse im Mittelpunkt.

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Im Blog www. Hermann Zapf in deutscher und englischer Sprache :. These days in March caused confusion in the so-called online printing community. Growth slowed, market capitalization halved, investors are turning their backs. The fears: When the market leader coughs, the smaller ones get a flu. And: The gold rush mood, which was also experienced at the Online Print Symposium for many years, seems to be gone. Do not worry: Online Printing is not going downhill. On the contrary. Online printing, like digital printing, is not a genre or even an industry, but a more or less useful auxiliary term for characterizing digital process paths in the production of printed matter.

It started with web-to-print, leading to automated, standardized and scalable processes with the World Wide Web as a showcase. So one could win on the one hand customers who could order to date no printed matter; on the other hand, price advantages were used, as the optimized procedures allowed more favorable costs. So money has been redistributed. The actual new business areas remained marginal. Growth was thus achieved by repression, with a naturally not limitless effect. Robert Keane recognized this early on.

He used Vistaprint as a cash cow to acquire dozens of other companies. CIMPRESS itself does not have any customers other than shareholders; customers for print products of all kinds, including mass customization, belong to the sub-brands. This has advantages and disadvantages. This was initially centralized to save costs and grow quickly. Now that growth has lost momentum, it has decentralized. Two things matter in this back and forth:. Ultimately, such opponents are all those who have built digital literacy as part of the reform of their core business, from commercial printing to packaging, large format, etc.

And thus able to offer technically savvy, highly efficient, cost-optimized and highly specialized.