In: Bettina Gransow Hrsg. Metatexto universal y experiencias particulares". In: Nikolaus Werz Hg. Politiker in Lateinamerika. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag, , S. In: Deutsch-Mexikanische Juristenvereinigung Hg. Baden-Baden: Nomos, , S. Ensayos sobre letras, historia y sociedad.
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In: Will G. Panster Hg. Essays on Mexican political culture. Amsterdam, , S. Stuttgart, , S. Mexiko, , S. Berlin, , S. In: Standpunkt. Das Themenheft der IG Metall. Politik in Zeiten der Globalisierung. In: ila Zeitschrift der Informationsstelle Lateinamerika , Nr. In: Ditmar Dirmoser et al. Analysen und Berichte. Lateinamerika Analysen und Berichte , Nr. Unkel, , S. Internationale Diskussionen. In: Renate Rott Hg. Juli , S. Frankfurt, , S. Here the student is registered with certain bodies, e.
After leaving the Berufsfachschule and passing the exit examinations set by the German Bar Association or other relevant associations, the apprentice receives a certificate and is ready for a career at all levels except in positions which require a specific higher degree, such as a doctorate. In some areas, the apprenticeship scheme teaches skills that are required by law, including certain positions in a bank or those as legal assistants. The 16 states have exclusive responsibility in the field of education and professional education.
The federal parliament and the federal government can influence the educational system only by financial aid to the states. There are many different school systems, but in each state the starting point is always the Grundschule elementary school for a period of four years; or six years in the case of Berlin and Brandenburg. Grades 5 and 6 form an orientation phase Orientierungsstufe during which students, their parents and teachers decide which of the above-mentioned paths the students should follow.
In all states except Berlin and Brandenburg , this orientation phase is embedded into the program of the secondary schools. The decision for a secondary school influences the student's future, but during this phase changes can be made more easily. In practice this rarely comes to bear because teachers are afraid of sending pupils to more academic schools whereas parents are afraid of sending their children to less academic schools.
In Berlin and Brandenburg, the orientation is embedded into that of the elementary schools. Teachers give a so-called educational path recommendation Bildungs gang empfehlung based on scholastic achievements in the main subjects mathematics, German, natural sciences, foreign language and classroom behavior with details and legal implications differing from state to state: in some German states, those wishing to apply for a Gymnasium or Realschule require such a recommendation stating that the student is likely to make a successful transition to that type of school; in other cases anybody may apply.
A student's performance at primary school is immaterial. All German states have Gymnasium as one possibility for the more able children, and all states - except Saxony - have some Gesamtschulen , but in different forms. The states of Berlin and Hamburg have only two types of schools: comprehensive schools and Gymnasium.
Learning a foreign language is compulsory throughout Germany in secondary schools and English is one of the more popular choices. Students at certain Gymnasium are required to learn Latin as their first foreign language and choose a second foreign language. The list of available foreign languages as well as the hours of compulsory foreign language lessons differ from state to state, but the more common choices, besides Latin, are English, French, Spanish, ancient Greek.
Many schools also offer voluntary study groups for the purpose of learning other languages. At which stage students begin learning a foreign language differs from state to state and is tailored according to the cultural and socio-economical dynamics of each state.
In some states, foreign language education starts in the Grundschule primary school. For example, in North Rhine-Westphalia , English starts in the third year of elementary school. The Saarland , which borders France , begins with French in the third year of primary school and French is taught in high school as the main foreign language. It may cause problems in terms of education for families that plan to move from one German state to another as there are partially completely different curricula for nearly every subject.
Adults who did not achieve a Realschulabschluss or Abitur , or reached its equivalent, have the option of attending evening classes at an Abendgymnasium or Abendrealschule. A few organizational central points are listed below. It should however be noted that due to the decentralized nature of the education system there are many more additional differences across the 16 states of Germany. There are typically 12 weeks of holidays in addition to public holidays.
Exact dates differ between states, but there are generally six weeks of summer and two weeks of Christmas holiday. The other holiday periods occur in spring during the period around Easter Sunday and autumn during the former harvest, where farmers used to need their children for field work. Schools can also schedule two or three special days off per term. Students have about periods of 45 minutes each per week depending on year and state , but especially secondary schools today switch to 90 minutes lessons Block which count as two 'traditional' lessons.
To manage classes that are taught three or five lessons per week there are two common ways. At some schools teaching 90 minutes periods there is still one minute lesson each day, mostly between the first two blocks; at other schools those subjects are taught in weekly or termly rotations.
The range of offered afternoon activities is different from school to school however, most German schools offer choirs or orchestras, sometimes sports, theater or languages. Many of these are offered as semi-scholastic AG's Arbeitsgemeinschaften — literally "working groups" , which are mentioned, but not officially graded in students' reports.
Other common extracurricular activities are organized as private clubs, which are very popular in Germany. There are three blocks of lessons where each lesson takes 45 minutes. After each block, there is a break of 15—20 minutes, also after the 6th lesson the number of lessons changes from year to year, so it's possible that one would be in school until 4 o'clock. In grades 11—13, 11—12, or 12—13 depending on the school system , each student majors in two or three subjects "Leistungskurse".
These are usually taught five lessons per week. The other subjects "Grundkurse" are usually taught three periods per week. The class is supposed to train the students' scientific research skills that will be necessary in their later university life. There are huge differences between the 16 states of Germany having alternatives to this basic pattern such as Waldorfschulen or other private schools. Adults can also go back to evening school and take the Abitur exam.
In , six percent of German children attended private schools. In Germany , Article 7, Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz , the constitution of Germany, guarantees the right to establish private schools. This article belongs to the first part of the German basic law , which defines civil and human rights. A right which is guaranteed in this part of the Grundgesetz can only be suspended in a state of emergency , if the respective article specifically states this possibility. That is not the case with this article. It is also not possible to abolish these rights. This unusual protection of private schools was implemented to protect them from a second Gleichschaltung or similar event in the future.
Ersatzschulen are ordinary primary or secondary schools which are run by private individuals, private organizations or religious groups. These schools offer the same types of diplomas as in public schools. However, Ersatzschulen, like their state-run counterparts, are subjected to basic government standards, such as the minimum required qualifications of teachers and pay grades.
An Ersatzschule must have at least the same academic standards as those of a state school and Article 7, Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz, allows to forbid the segregation of pupils according to socioeconomic status the so-called Sonderungsverbot. Therefore, most Ersatzschulen have very low tuition fees compared to those in most other Western European countries; scholarships are also often available. However, it is not possible to finance these schools with such low tuition fees: accordingly all German Ersatzschulen are subsidised with public funds.
Some students attend private schools through welfare subsidies. This is often the case if a student is considered to be a child at risk: students who have learning disabilities, special needs or come from dysfunctional home environments.
After allowing for the socio-economic status of the parents, children attending private schools are not as able as those at state schools. At the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA for example, after considering socioeconomic class, students at private schools underperformed those at state schools.
Some private Realschulen and Gymnasien have lower entry requirements than public Realschulen and Gymnasien. There are several types of special schools in Germany such as:. Only one in 21 German children attends such a special school. Teachers at those schools are qualified professionals who have specialized in special-needs education while at university.
Mittlerweile ist der Verkehr an der einzigen Bushaltestelle eingestellt. Mayer, Stefanie ; Biegelbauer, Peter ; Griessler, Erich and Iwae, Sosuke Dealing with complex matters: the political regulation of genetic testing and genetic counseling in Austria, Germany and Japan. As a young man, Mussolini had been a strident socialist, and he, like Hitler, used socialist language to lure the people to fascism. Economic Theory Bulletin, 3 2 , pp. Bettendorf, Leon ; Devereux, Michael P. When American boxing was at its zenith in the first half of the 20th century, as Margolick says, "Jews were all over boxing, not just as fighters and fans but.
Special schools often have a very favourable student-teacher ratio and facilities compared with other schools. Special schools have been criticized. It is argued that special education separates and discriminates against those who are disabled or different. There are very few specialist schools for gifted children. As German schools do not IQ-test children, most intellectually gifted children remain unaware that they fall into this category. The German psychologist, Detlef H.
Rost, carried out a pioneer long-term study on gifted children called the Marburger Hochbegabtenprojekt. Those who scored at least two standard deviations above the mean were categorised as gifted.
A total of gifted subjects participated in the study alongside controls. All participants in the study were tested blind with the result that they did not discover whether they were gifted or not. The study revealed that the gifted children did very well in school. The vast majority later attended a Gymnasium and achieved good grades. However, 15 percent, were classified as underachievers because they attended a Realschule two cases or a Hauptschule one case , had repeated a grade four cases or had grades that put them in the lower half of their class the rest of cases.
The report also concluded that most gifted persons had high self-esteem and good psychological health. Gifted children seemed to be served well by Germany's existing school system. The assessment in the year demonstrated serious weaknesses in German pupils' performance. In the test of 41 countries, Germany ranked 21st in reading and 20th in both mathematics and the natural sciences , prompting calls for reform. In response, Germany's states formulated a number of specific initiatives addressing the perceived problems behind Germany's poor performance.
By , German schoolchildren had improved their position compared to previous years, being ranked statistically significantly above average rank 13 in science skills and statistically not significantly above or below average in mathematical skills rank 20 and reading skills rank The PISA Examination also found big differences in achievement between students attending different types of German schools. But what they prefer to forget is that this success came at the cost of a catastrophe in the Hauptschulen. Germany has high standards in the education of craftspeople.
Historically very few people attended college. In the s for example, 80 percent had only Volksschule "primary school" -Education of 6 or 7 years. Only 5 percent of youths entered college at this time and still fewer graduated.
In the s, 6 percent of youths entered college. In there were still 8, cities in which no children received secondary education. In fact, many of those who did not receive secondary education were highly skilled craftspeople and members of the upper middle class. Even though more people attend college today, a craftsperson is still highly valued in German society.
Historically prior to the 20th century the relationship between a master craftsman and his apprentice was paternalistic. Apprentices were often very young when entrusted to a master craftsman by their parents. It was seen as the master's responsibility not only to teach the craft, but also to instill the virtues of a good craftsman. He was supposed to teach honour, loyalty, fair-mindedness, courtesy and compassion for the poor.
He was also supposed to offer spiritual guidance, to ensure his apprentices fulfilled their religious duties and to teach them to "honour the Lord" Jesus Christ with their lives. The master craftsman who failed to do this would lose his reputation and would accordingly be dishonoured - a very bad fate in those days. The apprenticeship ended with the so-called Freisprechung exculpation. The master announced in front of the trade heading that the apprentice had been virtuous and God-loving.
He had two options: either to work for a master or to become a master himself. Working for another master had several disadvantages. One was that, in many cases, the journeyman who was not a master was not allowed to marry and found a family. Because the church disapproved of sex outside of marriage, he was obliged to become a master if he did not want to spend his life celibate. This was called "Waltz" or Journeyman years. In those days, the crafts were called the "virtuous crafts" and the virtuosness of the craftspersons was greatly respected.
Nowadays, the education of craftspersons has changed - in particular self-esteem and the concept of respectability. Also certain virtues are ascribed to certain crafts. For example, a person might be called "always on time like a bricklayer" to describe punctuality. Today, a young person who wants to start an apprenticeship must first find an "Ausbilder": this may be a master craftsperson, a master in the industrial sector Industriemeister or someone else with proof of suitable qualifications in the training of apprentices. The "Ausbilder" must also provide proof of no criminal record and proof of respectability.
The Ausbilder has to be at least 24 years of age. The Ausbilder has several duties, such as 1 teach the craft, 2 teach the techniques, 3 instill character, 4 instill social skills.
In some cases, the Ausbilder must also provide board and lodging. Agreement is reached on these points before the apprenticeship begins. The apprentice will also receive payment for his work. An Ausbilder who provides board and lodging may set this off against the payment made. In the past, many of those who applied for an apprenticeship had only primary school education. Nowadays, only those with secondary school education apply for apprenticeships because secondary school attendance has become compulsory. In some trades, it has even become difficult for those holding the Hauptschulabschluss to find an apprenticeship because more and more pupils leave school with the Realschulabschluss or Abitur.
The apprenticeship takes three years. During that time, the apprentice is trained by the Ausbilder and also attends a vocational school.
This is called the " German model " or " dual education system " "Duale Ausbildung". Germany's universities are recognised internationally; in the Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU for , six of the top universities in the world are in Germany, and 18 of the top The dual education system combines both practical and theoretical education but does not lead to academic degrees.
It is more popular in Germany than anywhere else in the world and is a role model for other countries. The oldest universities of Germany are also among the oldest and best regarded in the world, with Heidelberg University being the oldest established in and in continuous operation since then. While German universities have a strong focus on research, a large part of it is also done outside of universities in independent institutes that are embedded in academic clusters, such as within the Max Planck , Fraunhofer , Leibniz and Helmholtz institutes.
Other degree-awarding higher education institutions may use the more generic term Hochschule. Some universities use the term research university in international usage to emphasize their strength in research activity in addition to teaching, particularly to differentiate themselves from Fachhochschulen. The excellence initiative has awarded eleven universities with the title University of Excellence. Professors at universities were traditionally required to have a doctorate as well as a habilitation. Since , the junior professorship was introduced to offer a more direct path to employment as a professor for outstanding doctoral degree.
Fachhochschulen have a more practical profile with a focus on employability. In research, they are rather geared to applied research instead of fundamental research. At a traditional university, it is important to study "why" a method is scientifically right; however, this is less important at Universities of Applied Sciences. Here the emphasis is placed on what systems and methods exist, where they come from, what their advantages and disadvantages are, how to use them in practice, when they should be used, and when not. For professors at a Fachhochschule , at least three years of work experience are required for appointment while a habilitation is not expected.
This is unlike their counterparts at traditional universities, where an academic career with research experience is necessary. Prior to the Bologna process , Fachhochschule graduates received a Diplom. FH Max Mustermann for a graduate engineer from a Fachhochschule. The FH Diploma is roughly equivalent to a 4-year Honours degree. An FH Diploma qualifies the holder for a doctoral program directly but in practice many universities require an additional entrance exam or participation in theoretical classes from FH candidates.
For Fachhochschulen , the Abitur , the Fachgebundene Hochschulreife certification or the Fachhochschulreife certification general or subject-restricted is required. Lacking these school leaving certifications, in some states potential students can qualify for university entrance if they present additional formal proof that they will be able to keep up with their fellow students.
Such is the case, for example, in Hamburg. While there are numerous ways to achieve entrance qualification to German universities,  the most traditional route has always been graduation from a Gymnasium with the Abitur; however this has become less common over time. As of , less than half of university freshmen in some German states had graduated from a Gymnasium.
Even in Bavaria a state with a policy of strengthening the Gymnasium only 56 percent of freshmen had graduated from a Gymnasium. High school diplomas received from countries outside of Germany are, in many cases, not considered equivalent to the Abitur, but rather to a Realschulabschluss and therefore do not qualify the bearer for admission to a German university.
However, it is still possible for such aaplicants to be admitted to a German university if they fulfill additional formal criteria, such as a particular grade point average or points on a standardized admissions test. These criteria depend on the school leaving certificate of the potential student and are agreed upon by the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs. For example, holders of the US high school diploma with a combined math and verbal score of on the SAT or 29 on the ACT may qualify for university admission. Foreign students lacking the entrance qualification can acquire a degree at a Studienkolleg , which is often recognized as an equivalent to the Abitur.
The one-year course covers similar topics as the Abitur and ensures sufficient language skills to take up studies at a German university. The process of application depends on the degree program applied for, the applicant's origin and the university entrance qualification. According to German law, universities are not permitted to discriminate against or grant preferential treatment to persons on basis of race, ethnic group, gender, social class, religion or political opinion.
Public universities in Germany are funded by the federal states and do not charge tuition fees. However, all enrolled students do have to pay a semester fee Semesterbeitrag. This fee consists of an administrative fee for the university only in some of the states , a fee for Studentenwerk , which is a statutory student affairs organization, a fee for the university's AStA Allgemeiner Studentenausschuss , students' government and Studentenschaft students' union , at many universities a fee for public transportation, and possibly more fees as decided by the university's students' parliament e.
In , the German Federal Constitutional Court ruled that a federal law prohibiting tuition fees was unconstitutional, on the grounds that education is the sole responsibility of the states. Due to massive student protests and a citizens' initiative which collected 70, signatures against tuition fees, the government of Hesse was the first to reverse course before the state election in ; other state governments soon followed. Several parties which spoke out for tuition fees lost state elections.
Bavaria in and Lower Saxony in were the last states to abolish tuition fees. Even after the abolition of general tuition fees, tuition fees for long-time students remain in six states. There are no university-sponsored scholarships in Germany, but a number of private and public institutions award scholarships—usually to cover living costs and books. Part typically half of this money is an interest-free loan that is later repaid.
Since the end of World War II , the number of young people entering a university has more than tripled in Germany, but university attendance is still lower than that of many other European nations. This can be explained with the dual education system with its strong emphasis on apprenticeships and vocational schools.
Many jobs which do require an academic degree in other countries such as nursing require completed vocational training instead in Germany.
The rate of university graduates varies by federal state. The number is the highest in Berlin and the lowest in Schleswig-Holstein. The organizational structure of German universities goes back to the university model introduced by Wilhelm von Humboldt in the early 19th century, which identifies the unity of teaching and research as well as academic freedom as ideals.
This model lead to the foundation of Humboldt University of Berlin and influenced the higher education systems of numerous countries. Some critics argue that nowadays German universities have a rather unbalanced focus, more on education and less on research. At German universities, students enroll for a specific program of study Studiengang. During their studies, students can usually choose freely from all courses offered at the university. However, all bachelor's degree programs require a number of particular compulsory courses and all degree programs require a minimum number of credits that must be earned in the core field of the program of study.
It is not uncommon to spend longer than the regular period of study Regelstudienzeit at university. There are no fixed classes of students who study and graduate together. Students can change universities according to their interests and the strengths of each university. Sometimes students attend multiple different universities over the course of their studies.
Professors also choose their subjects for research and teaching freely.
This academic freedom is laid down in the German constitution. Since German universities do not offer accommodation or meals, students are expected to organize and pay for board and lodging themselves. Inexpensive places in dormitories are available from Studentenwerk , a statutory non-profit organization for student affairs. However, there are only enough places for a fraction of students. Other common housing options include renting a private room or apartment as well as living together with one or more roommates to form a Wohngemeinschaft often abbreviated WG.
Furthermore, many university students continue to live with their parents. One third to one half of the students works to make a little extra money, often resulting in a longer stay at university. Recently, the implementation of the Bologna Declaration introduced bachelor's and master's degrees as well as ECTS credits to the German higher education system.
Previously, universities conferred Diplom and Magister degrees depending on the field of study, which usually took 4—6 years. These were the only degrees below the doctorate. In the majority of subjects, students can only study for bachelor's and master's degrees , as Diplom or Magister courses do not accept new enrollments. However, a few Diplom courses still prevail.
The following Bologna degrees are common in Germany:. In addition, there are courses leading to the Staatsexamen state examination. These did usually not transition to bachelor's and master's degrees. For future doctors, dentists, veterinarians, pharmacists, and lawyers, the Staatsexamen is required to be allowed to work in their profession. For teachers, judges, and public prosecutors, it is the required degree for working in civil service.
Students usually study at university for 4—8 years before they take the First Staatsexamen. Afterwards, they go on to work in their future jobs for one or two years depending on subject and state , before they are able to take the Second Staatsexamen , which tests their practical abilities. While it is not an academic degree formally, the First Staatsexamen is equivalent to a master's degree and qualifies for doctoral studies. On request, some universities bestow an additional academic degree e. The highest German academic degree is the doctorate.
Each doctoral degree has a particular designation in Latin except for engineering, where the designation is in German , which signifies in which field the doctorate is conferred in. The doctorate is indicated before the name in abbreviated form, e. Max Mustermann for a doctor in natural sciences. The prefix "Dr. Outside of the academic context, however, the designation is usually dropped. While it is not an academic degree formally, the Habilitation is a higher, post-doctoral academic qualification for teaching independently at universities. It is indicated by appending "habil.
Max Mustermann. The holder of a Habilitation may work as Privatdozent. Scientific research in the country is supported by industry, by the network of German universities and by scientific state-institutions such as the Max Planck Society and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
The raw output of scientific research from Germany consistently ranks among the world's best. The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is granted to ten scientists and academics every year. A generation ago the person least likely to attend a Gymnasium was a "catholic working class girl from the rural parts of Germany". Nowadays however the person least likely to attend a Gymnasium is a "minority youngster from the ghetto",  who is "the son of immigrants" .
The influence of social class on educational achievement is much greater in western Germany than it is in eastern Germany former GDR. An analysis of PISA data on Gymnasium pupils for the year showed that, while in western Germany the child of an academic was 7. Some people believed that immigrants were responsible, because more uneducated immigrant families lived in western than in eastern Germany. This assumption however could not be confirmed.
The difference between east and west was even stronger when only ethnic German children were studied. Social class differences in educational achievement are much more marked in Germany's big cities than they are in the rural parts of Germany. In cities with more than , inhabitants, children of academics are Males are less likely to meet the statewide performance targets, more likely to drop out of school and more likely to be classified emotionally disturbed. A lack of male role models contributes to a low academic achievement in the case of lower-class males.
Children from poor immigrant or working-class families are less likely to succeed in school than children from middle- or upper-class backgrounds.