Di conseguenza il loro datore di lavoro non ottempera ai dovuti versamenti all'Inps e all'Inail. Se un pilota si sente male non va a farsi visitare a Dublino ma chiama il suo medico di famiglia. Nel anche il Fisco aveva contestato a Ryanair il mancato pagamento delle imposte sui ricavi da voli nazionali dal al Easyjet che ha sede a Londra paga i contributi in Italia e utilizza contratti italiani, lo stesso vale per la piccola Air Alps con sede a Innsbruck Austria. Journeys inspired poems, films, new languages, novels, even great architecture and Art works.
Travel-events departure, journeying, arrival have aspects like the forces generating human happenings. So planning, building and completing talented works can be compared to starting, organising, getting to destination and returning -- in travel. Travellers make creative acts that build up new world-knowledge that also undermines their very identity. To animate this issue we narrate experiences that keep the magic that gave them birth. Discovery, independence,.
Just to name a few. In venturing to borders of Creativity-Travel-Discovery, even our Utility Magazine is involved as protagonist. Greater detailed news, info-grahics, illustrations, maps and deeper insights, language-sections more clearly separated. Restivo, - - Palermo Tel. Concessionaria pubblicitaria Publipoint s. I due fotografi Martin Loyer e Arnaud Frich hanno deciso di esagerare: in cinque ore hanno realizzato ben 2.
Sul blog del megalomane progetto si precisa che nella foto sono nascosti dettagli particolari e curiosi: tutti da scoprire. Quando si dice viaggiare rimanendo fermi. Happy birthday Carnaby Street! Si chiama Jason Polan, ha 27 anni e ritrae a loro insaputa newyorkesi e turisti della Grande Mela.
Un souvenir originale per il vostro viaggio in USA. Visitare una delle spiagge e villaggi per naturisti o scambisti in Usa, Grecia, Croazia o Jamaica. Andare al World Bodypainting Festival in Austria: artisti di 40 Paesi in una mega-session di body-pittura. Il primo aereo a energia solare ha, infatti, visto la luce, e anche il cielo. Speriamo non vada a finire allo stesso modo. Un caso bizzarro, ma a quanto pare non unico. I medici inglesi, infatti, segnalano diversi casi simili. Alla luce della bizzarra notizia, supponiamo che il successo della Wii tra le donne sia dovuto soprattutto a Wii Fit.
Davanti al suo becco, tracciare una linea. Negli anni della malattia, ha preso appunti registrando sensazioni ed emozioni. Interessi a gradi quelli che riempiono la vita di Marcello Caruana, chirurgo generale specializzato in una nuova tecnica poco invasiva nella cura delle emorroidi chiamata Thd. Immerso tra i colori e le calde atmosfere tipiche di Porto Palo di Menfi, diviene pietra nostalgica e miliare di un triangolo logistico che esalta le bellezze della Sicilia occidentale. Erano legati tra loro da funi di canapa di 3 cm di diametro. Nel cinque giovani scienziati e un pappagallo decisero di dimostrare che la colonizzazione della Polinesia, in epoca Precolombiana, avvenne ad opera di popolazioni sudamericane.
Il biologo Thor Heyerdhal, capo della spedizione e spe-. La spedizione venne, quindi, preparata cercando di utilizzare mezzi e strumenti di quel tempo. Giunsero dopo cento giorni di navigazione avendo il cielo come unica mappa per un equipaggio costretto a sfidare i capricci del mare e le proprie paure. Sono stati molti a seguirne la scia. Non tutti i tentativi di seguire la scia del Kon-tiki sono andati a buon fine: alcune imbarcazioni non sono riuscite a seguirne la rotta, altre non sono arrivate a destinazione. Non esistono viaggi sbagliati. Esistono solo viaggiatori impreparati. If society were a human body, design for Giorgio Borruso would be the cardiovascular system.
His unremitting experiments mean fascination with cross-contamination of disciplines: he faces new work as architect, sculptor, painter, art director. Maker of impressive retail designs, real style and creativity icons. Moving in the 90s to L. Design e architettura sono discipline umanistiche e scientifiche allo stesso tempo. Per tal motivo il. Non puoi certo essere definito un architetto tradizionale, le tue originali creazioni ne sono la prova. Che strada hai seguito per essere quello che sei oggi? Si tratta sempre di. In queste pagine diverse immagini degli ambienti e della scala trasparente.
This is a question I often ask myself. My work has moments of great inspiration when it is possible to achieve great goals, and moments of difficulty. For this, I also wonder what has led me to it. Yet, there are many challenges, in fact, daily battles. I was always attracted on one side by the art world, and on the other side by science, and the curiosity to understand how things work. I like abstract research, but at the same time, I would not resist the desire to cross into to new territories to discover the reason for things.
Architecture and design are both scientific and humanistic disciplines. Therefore it was a natural choice. In no way are you a traditional architect, as your creations prove. How did you get to be what you are today? The first half of my life was spent between university and institutions, trying to hone a profession; the other half was spent trying to forget all that I had learned. Italian culture can count some of the greatest thinkers in history. The architect must know how to create bridges between diverse areas. This is fundamental. The result can then be applied on various scales.
The other element that I think is fundamental in my work is the ability to understand space; to deal in exercises with space - in the scale of an object, in an interior or an entire building. The staircase of Fornarina, if taken out of context, is a pleasure to see, but it is, first of all, an instrument to overcome differences in height. Inside of a relatively small space, the staircase had to be conceived as a transparent instrument, through which we could see what was happening all around. Need an object be both beautiful and functional?
An object must serve all the functions it. I never really look for beauty. I am not interested in altering a curve to achieve aesthetic perfection. An intimate-underwear boutique project? Perhaps there is a slight voyeuristic aspect. I would have liked to make it completely transparent, but, in reality, it has a central backbone to avoid this disadvantage, if it can be defined as thus.
Do you have a secret ingredient for your success? On my long personal journey, I created many different languages for the international brands I have worked with - to. Il negozio di 95 mq. Un oggetto deve necessariamente essere sia bello che funzionale? Io avrei voluto farla completamente trasparen-. Nel mio lungo e personale percorso mi sono trovato a creare, di volta in volta, dei linguaggi diversi che consentissero a marchi di fama internazionale con cui ho lavorato, di distinguersi gli uni dagli altri e di essere riconoscibili al pubblico. Per apprezzare la musica non devi per forza saper comporre, ba-.
Lo showroom Snaidero a Los Angeles.
Sotto lo showroom Snaidero a Coral Gables. I have understood two fundamental things on the concept of architecture today and that of the future: first, I think it is a mistake to build a language to make your own work recognizable; second, whatever an architect creates should not be for those who commission the work whether a museum or a company selling electronics but for the public.
Abstract architecture with no relationship to its context, or to the public, is an architecture without dialogue, and fails for this reason. Today, the more important thing is communication, the ability to convey ideas even in other fields. When the music touches the right chords within you, only then has the composer done a good work.
You say each design is a journey. Do you mean the trip the observer makes? I refer to the journey made by observers, by those entering the spaces. My work consists of altering the physical environment. It is fundamental to understand the level of responsibility that this implies. Modification of the environment has enormous responsibility. This extraordinary land somehow thrusts you into the future, seeing things that elsewhere still do not exist. Whole generations are growing up in this environment. Without the opportunity to live in cities like those in Italy, in which it is possible to be confronted with urban views that showcase history.
These people spend entire weekends in the malls. Being involved in retail has become for. It has been my personal agenda. How important is travel for you and your work? I am constantly traveling. Recently, I was invited with thirteen other architects from different countries around the world, as the US representative, to New Zealand, an extraordinary place. Travel is a fundamental part of my life.
It gives the possibility of continuous comparison between various cultures that widens vision and frees of prejudice. Perusing books on your designs, I noted a tortellino was among your shapes… This project we designed for Fornarina in Las Vegas in was the beginning of a journey with Lino Fornari. As for the tortellino, we tried to create an object to exhibit their shoe collections.
We did an experiment in visual perception. We showed the object for a few seconds, asking the test subject to draw it quickly after. What was your aim? To understand how the brain works; what its visual perception mechanisms are. This type of object is difficult to reproduce because of its complexity. The inner form then becomes a circumference that as an abstract symbol is perceived immediately by the human brain. From the circumference, it passes back to the shoe contained inside, which is also a geometrically complex object.
Architectural critic Michael Webb perceived the display as an unusual passage of Surrealism connected with Dali and Bunuel. Someone else saw a tortellino. For me, both observations are fascinating. It is like when you see a film, return home and continue to think about it.
I have learned that this is a universal type of. Alludi al viaggio che pensi faccia chi osserva le tue opere? Senza dubbio mi riferisco al viaggio di chi guarda o entra dentro le mie opere. Intere generazioni sono cresciute in questo tipo di cultura. Io vivo viaggiando. Sono stato chiamato di recente, insieme ad altri tredici architetti provenienti da vari paesi del mondo, come rappresentante degli Usa in Nuova Zelanda, un posto straordinario.
Leggendo qualcosa sui tuoi progetti, mi ha incuriosito che qualcuno avesse visto un tortellino tra le forme delle tue opere… Si tratta del progetto portato avanti per Fornarina a Las Vegas. Il progetto risale al Un progetto che ci ha fatto tornare bambini, fare delle acrobazie straordinarie e creare un paesaggio assolutamente folle.
A cosa miravi? Ero interessato a capire come funziona il cervello, quali sono i meccanismi di percezione visiva. Qualcun altro ci ha visto il tortellino. Per me sono affascinanti entrambe le interpretazioni: sia quella di Web sia quella della pasta. Puoi spiegarci meglio? Ancora in merito al progetto di Fornarina a Las. Il pavimento ondulato simula la superficie marina. Qui a fianco solo alcuni esempi. Can you clarify? Incorporating discomfort into a project can be fascinating. In the Las Vegas project, we tried to create a zone of discomfort by using light, a fundamental element in architecture.
We studied how to utilize light-intensity, and the heat it developed, to force users to explore new zones in search of refuge. At times, it is. Experimentation entails risk-taking: exceeding limits means venturing out to discover new territories. An architect, a designer, must face commercial reality, returns on investments, which increases their sense of responsibility. Being daring working in the field for a company on the stock exchange is not the same as experimenting within a university.
Today, it is certainly easier for me than ten years ago. California has given me more strength in risk-taking.
Here, I have developed a second personality,. When did you push beyond your limits? With Snaidero, for example, the famous Italian kitchen manufacturer, we created a series of showrooms. In this conservative sector, with Dario Snaidero, we decided to create showrooms with no visual connections to the domestic space. No added walls or ceilings. A giant structure came to my mind that we realized in aluminum and tensile fabric.
A high-risk strategy. Yet, the more you dare, the bigger the satisfaction knowing your intuition was right. The Snaidero group, in spite of the crisis, has become number one in America in respect to European producers in its sector. We are already completing our fourth collaboration with Snaidero, a project in New York.
Sometimes, to dare makes you open extraordinary doors. La zona di discomfort spinge, inevitabilmente, a esplorare nuove zone per cercarvi rifugio. Ma talvolta sperimentare vuole dire anche rischiare. Oltrepassare dei limiti significa avventurarsi alla scoperta di territori nuovi. Un architet-. La California mi ha aiutato a far crescere il mio coraggio.
Mi ha dato forza. Dove pensi che ti sei spinto oltre? In ogni progetto sul quale lavoriamo abbiamo sempre la sensazione. Con Snaidero, ad esempio, celebre brand italiano che si occupa di cucine, abbiamo realizzato una serie di showrooms. Mi venne in mente una struttura gigantesca che fu poi realizzata in alluminio con delle parti in tessuto. Al momento stiamo lavorando a New York. A volte osare ti fa aprire delle porte straordinarie. Che effetto ti fa vivere in una casa progettata da altri? Preferisco gli spazi esterni a quelli interni.
I suoi progetti sono stati esposti in mostre internazionali e le sue opere sono ammirate in oltre un migliaio di pubblicazioni. Vive a Los Angeles, con la moglie Elizabeth e al figlio Geo. Ha diverse passioni, prime fra tutte, il motociclismo. Born in Palermo , he studied Architecture there, before taking off in the world. His work was shown at international expositions and his designs admired in more than publications.
He lives today in L. He is a bold experimenter, genius in branding, creator of retail design-plans all over the world. He built breathtaking spaces devoted to Shopping of the highest quality. The pastimes he prefers mountain-bikes and motorcycling. Ancora oggi io sto cercando di capirlo. Io prendo sempre le distanze da chi sostiene di avere formule o definizioni. Tutti ci limitiamo a cercare di capire cosa succede attorno a noi.
Mio figlio, che ha appena un anno, sta cominciando a conoscere il mondo attorno a lui. Io sto continuando ad esplorare. La musica incontra il design. Disponibile in DVD solo in lingua inglese. When I accepted the proposal, I put certain limits; my private life remains private. The television cameras followed me into my studio and in airports, but not my home. My living space is always filled with many things.
People may imagine I live in an environment like those which I design. In reality, my life is absolutely ordinary, sometimes even boring. My home is a neutral environment where I can be. Se volete vedere i lavori di Giorgio Borruso visitate www. How are you affected by living in a house designed by others? The house in which I live was built in , and it has a level of neutrality so that I imagine it as outside of time. It is the ideal place for me to conceive new ideas.
There is a collection of open air spaces that for me is absolutely essential. I prefer outdoor spaces to interior. If Treccani asked you tomorrow to define design for the next generation? Design implies the modification of environments. It is difficult to give a definition. It is a concept that contains many things in itself. Still, today, I am trying to understand it. Mine is not false modesty. I always take distance from those with sure formulas or definitions. Nobody has them, truly. We limit ourselves trying to understand what happens around us.
My one-year-old son is beginning to explore the world around him. I am continuing my exploration. Dal mare Tirreno, passando per lo Ionio fino ad arrivare al mar Adriatico abbiamo tracciato una rotta insolita, per chi ha voglia intraprendere un viaggio alla scoperta di alcune splendide isole italiane. Words in one etymology that restore our autonomy from what is about us.
An Island lives rhythms, customs, its needs — that make it unique, unrepeatable. We truly intend to take you out to sea, far from city-troubles, to make you leave problems on land, surrendering to summer. We expressly excluded some famous isles in our seas but not all.
Un arcipelago ricco di storia e di meraviglie con una natura unica al mondo, difesa dal Parco Nazionale. Elba, Capraia, il Gi-. Breathtaking views for globetrotters too. Inlet of the Algae cliffs attract many lucky people riding the blue-blue waters. Tyrrhenian-sea Venus rose from sea-waters to kiss the horizon, let fall 7 stones from her necklace into the sea.
The Isles in 11 councils and 2 provinces have long history, Unique Natural wonders protected by a National Park. The embracing sea, pink-walled. Ognuna ha una storia, una leggenda che affascina e incanta. E poi Marciana e Marciana Marina, cittadina elegante con un bel lungomare ornato da tamerici. A testimonianza della sua permanenza restano Villa dei Mulini a Portoferraio e Villa San Martino nella campagna della piccola capitale elbana. Imperdibili per il vostro soggiorno la Tenuta delle Ripalte, una villa ottocentesca in mezzo a ettari di pini e di vigneti che scendono fino al mare.
Il ristorante si trova nelle vecchie cantine della villa. Ideale per una sera-. Da non perdere una visita ai mercati settimanali: un susseguirsi colorato di bancarelle di abbigliamento e leccornie. Do not miss a visit to the weekly markets. They are a continuum of coloured stalls decked high by vendors with clothing, house-wares and sweet-delicacies. Be charmed by cosy small beaches Pomonte and Fetovaia , crystal-clear sea, inhabited areas with hospitality married to gracious service. Elba has 8 Councils belonging to Leghorn Province.
Portoferraio is the main centre with old-quarter houses with floral balconies, narrow streets and romantic squares. Marciana and Marciana Marina is a smart little town with fine seafront with tamarisk trees. Nearby Procchio has fine sandy beach. Un paesaggio lunare e un piccolo lago nella miniera di ferro. Lunar landascape and a small lake inside a iron-mine. Winter inhabitants around 30, — Summer population three-times that.
Un-forgettable the enforced stay of one famous French Emperor, Napoleon -exiled to Elba in , staying there for nearly one year. You must not omit Tenuta della Ripalte, 19th-century Mansion in hectares of pine-trees and vineyards running to the sea. The Restaurant is inside the old Cellars. Kontiki Restaurant is ideal. Spiaggia sabbiosa, qui scesero gli Argonauti e si rifocillarono. Sandy beach, where the Argonauts disembarked and rested. A beach in an inlet close to the Cavo, on the east side.
A sud. Acque turchesi e una rossa parete di roccia a picco. In the south: turquoise sea with red-walled rock precipices. With tower far north: see it in early Summer for Lilies blossoming. Su questi scogli si posano i Marangoni: bei fondali, forti le correnti. Cliffs - home to Marangoni birds - high waves. Questi ultimi portarono da Roma la vite. Il vino prodotto, chiamato n seguito Palmaziano o Palmazio era prodotto fino a qualche decennio fa.
Its breath-taking bays; clear-running waters and the one sandy beach Cala Mortola will touch your heart. The Romans later. Forgotten for centuries, Giannutri got rediscovered only in by Gualtiero Adami, who withdrew there for 40 years.
On his death — the story goes— his wife had no wish to leave the island, but rather than do that, in a frenzy of madness, she turned into a wild creature of the Maquis, where it is believed her howling ghost still wanders. A lei il cantautore italiano Fabio Concato ha dedicato un intero album. Bella e possibile. Anche nei prezzi. The wine they made, later named Palmaziano or Palmazio, got produced until a few decades ago. Capraia represents an alternative short-stay attraction of great character: its partially uncontaminated nature offers long walks immersed in Natural habitat and great Scuba-Diving opportunities.
Il Giglio isle The Lily , with colours impossibile to beat, fine beaches, good all-year-round climate, gives all-Season holiday-surprises. The emerald sea, with fish-crowded deep-waters, is highly esteemed in the Mediterranean. For good food choose from 2 island locales. The island has lush vegetation: from March till late June it explodes with colours and fragrances. The Council administration includes the nearby Isle of Giannutri, a few kilometres southeast. Isle of Giannutri, a very tiny paradise, is set aside from the other islands.
Italian singer-songwriter Fabio Concato dedicated a whole Album to it. Geographical distance makes it special, perhaps unique and inimitable. In ancient times, Giannutri charmed the Romans, who built a harbour and stylish Patrician Villas: one of them, luxuriously built in high-quality marble, probably belonged to the Domizi Aenobarbi family, ancient Senators. The Villa is closed for restoration, but several re-. Nessuna spiaggia, solo rocce inaccessibili agli scalzi. Dalla Cala dello Spalmatoio, dove arriva il traghetto, un sentiero pedonale attraversa il monte fino a giungere a Cala Maestra, sul lato opposto.
No beach-- only rocks un- reachable on bare feet. From high-ground -Poggio Capel Rosso Red-Hair Hillock — only sea is visible; south, in no way can you see land even on the clearest days. Giannutri has Sea-Park status, so motor-boats are not allowed to moor on most of its coast. Starting from Cala dello Spalmatoio where the Ferry lands , a Footpath crosses the mountain to reach Cala Maestra on the other side. The island right now still houses the Penitentiary and so is closed, off-bounds, to visitors.
You can land there, if you get a permit from the Interior Ministry. Its population is prisondetainees and warders. Gorgona, smallest of the 7 Sisters inhabitants is mainly taken up by the Penitentiary. The ancient Urgon, Medieval monks lived here, and Benedictines and Cistercians built monasteries. In it got trans-. Insenatura isolata dai colori unici: il quarzo rende bianca la sabbia. Isolated inlet where quartz makes unique white colours.
Da qui, guardando Montecristo, si gode di spettacolari tramonti. Facing Montecristo, you enjoy spectacular sunsets. Baia con ciottoli e un fondale poco ripido. Ideale per i bambini. Pebbly bay with shallow waters. Ideal for children. Le richieste vanno inoltrate al Corpo Forestale dello Stato Tel. Nel , infine, fu trasformata in colonia penale agricola. Vi risiedono i guardiani cui si aggiungono, durante la bella stagione, alcune guardie forestali. Today everything here is run by the Justice Ministry, which supplies water and electricity to the homes of the few Gorgonese left.
On Summer Tuesdays small parties with permits are guided by National Park Cooperative to see Cala Scirocco and Cala Martina and maquis-refuges of wild rabbits, gulls, sea-swallows and migrating birds. Montecristo inaccessible, the furthest from the coast is a wild island — you cannot stay the night. For centuries its inhospitable nature kept people away — till 5th-century monks and hermits cleared parts for habitation. The overhanging strath is the only building-space. Warders live there, joined in the fine season by Forest Guards, who guide tours limited to 3 paths. Book a boat at Elba, to get there.
Sei macchie sulla tavolozza del Tirreno, a largo delle coste del Golfo di Gaeta. Sei parentesi graffe di natura incontaminata, buon cibo e colori. Il tufo bianco o grigio, il giallo dello zolfo, la rosea trachite, la riolite, il rosso dalle venature ferrose, il verde smeraldo delle acque limpide, il nero delle notti dipinte di jazz di Filomena Salerno. Ponza, terra di ginestre. Probabilmente ha origine dal greco Pontium marina , tradotto poi dai Latini. Volsci, Fenici, Romani hanno lasciato ognuno ombre delle vite dei loro popoli. Si tratta del team di Ciccio Nero, il primo che mise un pontile per fare attraccare le barche.
Sorrisi e braccia tese mentre scen-. Sailing, lobsters and jazz at Ponza isles Six spots on the Tyrrhenian Sea palette, barely off the coast of the Gulf of Gaeta. The white or grey tufa, the yellow of sulphur, pink trachyte, riolyte, the iron-red mineral-veinings, the emerald green of transparent waters, the pitch-black of nights painted with jazz.
Ponza, its land covered in gorse-bushes, probably derives from the Greek Pontium coastline , translated into Latin as Pontia. A land very closely linked to Water by Fire, in a volcanic state. For 30 years a floating yellow Jetty has welcomed those who land at Ponza. The Ciccio Nero team was the first to set up a landing-stage as a mooring for the. Through an ancient Roman tunnel, a bay with fine viewpoints. Grotte di Pilato Rappresentano un vero museo marittimo.
They symbolize essentially a genuine sea museum. Ogni angolo di Ponza ha un nome particolare. Giunti a riva, alzando gli occhi incontrerete il Ponza Diving Center. Le pontine sono il paradiso dei sub. Alcuni dei siti da visitare sono Punta della Madonna — con il pesce ago cavallino che vive mimetizzato fra le praterie di Poseidonia — le Formiche — con la lunga caverna rossa per le gorgonie abbracciate a claveline e ascidie - o se volete, potete ballare coi pesci per la corrente, al Faro della Guardia.
Smiles and open arms await you as you come down the gangway. A proposal to take the usual daily boattrip that leaves at Once secure on dry-land, look up and gaze at Ponza Diving Center. For ScubaDivers, the Jetties are pure heaven. The sites to visit are Madonna Point — with horse-needle-fish that survive by camouflage among the Poseidonia plants; Le Formiche — with a long cave turned red by gorgon-corals embracing tunicked micro-animals: or, if you wish, you can dance with the fish taking advantage of the current-stream off the Guardia Lighthouse.
Every island corner has a special name. Nomi illustri del panorama jazzistico internazionale del calibro di Roberto Gatto, Joy Garrison, Enrico Rava, Fabio Morgera, Karl Potter, Carolina Banderas e Sandro Deidda, fanno da cornice ad un appuntamento imperdibile che mescola jazz moderno, ispirato alla hip hop, alla soul, al blues ed alle contaminazioni afro. In its 3rd year, this festival brings crowds of Jazz-lovers to the islands in Summer.
It is one stage of Jazz on the Beach. Every part of Ponza has a special name. Oppure ancora restate al livello del mare, a osservare il volo di miriadi di uccelli e a tuffarvi dalle secche. Arriverete in un conservato Porto Romano, scavato nel tufo di duemila anni fa, noleggerete una barchetta al Ciro Sub, affittando muta penne e maschera al Diving World fondato da Salvatore Braca, celebre documentarista.
Choose to swim down the bluest waters, amidst the holy silence of the chasms, or climb high up to the peaks of Mount Guarniere or on the Radica. In general young people in Italy dress fashionably. Sono le 9. Dovete prepararvi ad uscire. It's 9.
You must prepare yourselves to go out. Preparari ad uscire! Get yourself ready to go out! In the compound tenses, reflexive verbs are conjugated with the verb essere, even though the verbs are transitive cf. The past participle has to agree with the subject: Stamattina i bambini si sono alzati alle 6. This morning the children got themselves up at 6. Mi sono vestita con calma. I got dressed slowly. Pronominal verb forms Pronominal verb forms are verb forms which use the reflexive pronoun.
In Italian they are used much more frequently than in English because we can use them not only in a true reflexive pattern, but also in many other ways. In true reflexives see above , the subject and object of the verb are one and the same. Although this is not the case with pronominal verb forms, they still embody the concept of 'reci- procal' or 'reflexive' action an action relating or reflecting back to the subject. The different uses of the pronominal verb form will become clear from the examples below.
Note the use of the auxiliary essere in the compound tenses: Giulio si lava le mani. Giulio washes his hands. Mi metto la giacca. I put on my jacket. Stamattina non mi sono fatto la barba. This morning I didn't shave myself. In the examples above, the actions are not truly reflexive, since the subjects and the objects of the actions are not exactly identical: Giulio. In the last example, the participle can also agree with the object: Stamattina non mi sono fatta la barba. The reflexive pronoun can also be omitted in which case the construction no longer takes essere in the compound tenses: Giulio lava le mani.
Metto la giacca. Non ho fatto la barba. Ci vediamo domani.
When did you push beyond your limits? Oxford; New York: Pergamon Press, Mescolare bene e guarnire con una mezza fetta di arancia o una mezza fetta di limone. Concessionaria pubblicitaria Publipoint s. Mathematical Poetry In this section I follow some essential concepts in mainstream mathematics, as they find their way into the poetry of Zbigniew Herbert.
See you tomorrow. Mario e Nicoletta si sposano domani. Mario and Nicoletta are getting married tomorrow. Dove vi siete conosciuti tu e Maria? Where did you and Maria meet each other? Ci siamo incontrati in Spagna. We met each other in Spain. Note how in the examples above the reflexive pronoun marks an event or action taking place within the subject; the two people are at the same time the subject and the object of a reciprocal action. The same actions can be expressed by the active form, in which case one person is the subject and the other is the object: Domani Mario sposa Nicoletta.
Tomorrow Mario will marry Nicoletta. Dove tu hai conosciuto Maria? Where did you meet Maria? Rossi in Spagna. I met Dr Rossi in Spain. Tonight we'll watch a nice film. Ho fame! Voglio mangiarmi una pizza! I'm hungry! I really want a pizza! Mi sono dimenticata le chiavi! I forgot the keys! In the examples above, the objects of the verbs are totally separate from, and not part of, the subjects. However the use of the reflexive pronoun shows the intensity felt by the people carrying out these actions.
The same sentences can be expressed without using the reflexive pronouns, but then the statements will sound much less emotional, more objective: Stasera vediamo un bel film. Voglio mangiare una pizza. Ho dimenticato le chiavi. There are a few Italian verbs that are always or almost always used with a reflexive pronoun, because of the 'psychological' and subjective meaning they convey, for example: accorgersi to realise, to be aware arrabbiarsi to get angry divertirsi to have fun innamorarsi to fall in love pentirsi to regret, repent vergognarsi to be ashamed Sbrigati!
Non ti accorgi che e tardi? Hurry up! Don't you realise that it's late? Non arrabbiarri! Don't be angry! Vi siete divertiti a Roma? Did you have a good time in Rome? Giulia si e pentita di aver accettato quel lavoro. Giulia regretted having accepted that job. Non vergognarri di questo errore, non e colpa tua.
Don't be ashamed of this mistake. It's not your fault. Verb tables 2. Italian is spoken. Nella mia famiglia si parlano tre lingue. In my family three languages are spoken. Dal terrazzo si vedono i tetti della citta. From the terrace the roofs of the city can be seen one can see the roofs. In the first example, the si passivante form appears identical to the si imper- sonate form 'one' speaks Italian described in 2.
However, when there is a plural subject, as in the second two examples, the verb is plural, so it becomes clear that the construction is passive 'three languages are spoken', 'the roofs can be seen'. Impersonal si The pronoun si is also used to express the impersonal form of verbs see also One works better in cool weather. Stasera si va a ballare. Tonight everybody is going to dance. A tavola non si invecchia. One doesn't get old at the dinner table.
Popular saying, meant to discourage people from hurrying when eating Notice that the impersonal form is always formed with si and the third person singular of the verb. Verb tables All the examples shown in the tables in 2. Certain verbs use essere instead see 2. The simpli- fied tables in 2. Regular verbs: active conjugations Here are the complete conjugations of four very common Italian verbs. We call these patterns regular because the stems of these verbs remain constantly the same or invari- able throughout the whole system of moods and tenses.
Understanding the way the endings the variable part of the verb change, will allow us to learn all the possible forms of most Italian verbs. Notice the two patterns of the 3rd conjugation, and remember that the pattern in -isco is the most frequent. Notice how each passive tense is formed by the corresponding tense of the auxil- iary essere see below 2.
In this table the participle is masculine singular, but in actual use it agrees with gender and number of the subject see below , as do all compound forms of verbs using essere. Italian has a large number of irregular verbs, most of them in the 2nd conjugation, including many verbs frequently used in everyday language. Sometimes the irregular changes of the stem are unique to one verb as in the case of avere and essere. Sometimes several verbs may be grouped under a common pattern of irregularity, and this can help to memorise the many but not always unpredictable deviations from the 'norm'.
The complete conjugations of five irregular verbs are shown below 2. These verbs have been chosen not only because of their frequency of use, but also because in some cases their patterns are followed by several other irregular verbs. A complete list of irregular verbs in alphabetical order is in Appendix II. VERBS 2. They share a common feature: they are often used in combination with another verb. The verbs avere 'to have' see When used in this way, they are called verbi servili 'modal verbs'. Ieri ho dovuto chiudere io l'ufficio.
I had to lock the office, yesterday. Quando potremo incontrare il Dott. When can we meet Dr Salvi? Voglio tornare a casa presto stasera. I want to go home early tonight. The verb essere is highly irregular, with varied stems in almost all tenses. Avere, dovere, potere, volere also have varying stems in their present indicative tenses, but a common pattern of contraction in their future and present conditional tense with the vowel -e- dropping to give the the future forms av-ro, dov-ro, etc.
In the tables below, note how the compound tenses of essere take essere as their auxiliary, and the participle has to agree in number and gender. Infinitive Infinito Present Presente av-ere ess-ere dov-ere pot-ere vol-ere Past Passato avere avuto essere stato avere dovuto avere potuto avere voluto Indicative Indicativo Present Presente ho son-o dev-o debbo poss-o vogli-o hai se-i dev-i puo-i vuo-i ha e dev-e pud vuol-e abb-iamo s-iamo dobb-iamo poss-iamo vogl-iamo av-ete si-ete dov-ete pot-ete vol-ete hanno s-ono dev-ono debbono poss-ono vogli-ono Imperfect Imperfetto av-evo ero dov-evo pot-evo vol-evo av-evi eri dov-evi pot-evi vol-evi av-eva era dov-eva pot-eva vol-eva Verb tables 2.
Infinitive mood infinito The infinitive is the basic form of verbs, and the one used as dictionary entry in other words, the name of the verb. It is the infinitive form -are, -ere, -ire or -rre that tells us which conjugation a verb belongs to. The infinitive has a present and a past tense. The past is formed by the past participle and the infinitive avere or essere.
When formed with essere, the past infinitive changes form to agree with the verb subject see examples below. In their present indicative, these verbs follow the -go pattern shown below 2. We must leave at 7. Sai usare il computer? Can you use the computer? Penso di avere capito. I think I have understood. Non riesco a sentire la tua voce. I can't hear your voice. In most cases the infinitive is linked to preceding verbs by a preposition such as di or a as in the last two examples above see list of verbs and prepositions in Appendix IV. However with the verbs potere, dovere, volere, sapere, preferire, desiderare, amare, osare, no preposition is needed.
For particular uses of infinitive with a prepo- sition, see 4. In Italian the subject of the infinitive must be the same as that of the verb on which it depends. Otherwise two separate finite verbs must be used, usually linked by che. An exception to this is when the main verb of the clause is fare or lasciare see also Let me pass. Lasciali parlare. Let them speak. Ho fatto entrare i signori. I allowed the gentlemen to come in. Infinitive as imperative: The infinitive can be used by itself, without depending on another verb, when it is used to tell somebody not to do something, i.
Be quiet, don't speak. Non sporgersi dal finestrino. Don't lean out of the window. Note how a phrase that was originally the imperative of a verb used reflexively non ti scordare 'do not forget' has now become the name of a flower: Nontiscordardime Forget-me-not Moods and tenses of verbs Infinitive as a noun: Infinitive verbs are often used instead of nouns, sometimes preceded by the definite article, in the masculine singular form: Lavorare stanca.
Work is tiring. Mangiare e necessario per vivere. Eating is necessary for life. II sapere degli antichi si trasmette di generazione in generazione. The wisdom of the ancients is handed down from generation to generation. For further uses of the infinitive and past infinitive, see also Indicative mood: introduction The indicative mood is used to express straightforward statements of facts, objec- tive descriptions, real and definite situations, etc. We shall look here at the eight tenses of the indicative mood, both regular and irregular forms, with a brief refer- ence to their use, covered in detail in Part B.
Present indicative jndicativo presente The forms of the present indicative of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables above 2. In addition to avere, essere, dovere, potere, volere shown in the verb tables above, some common verbs with irregular present indicative are illustrated below. Irregular present indicatives: 1st conjugation Some verbs in the 1st conjugation present potential difficulties with spelling. These are the regular verbs ending in -care, -gare, such as cercare, pagare: In those forms that include i cerchi, cerchiamo , the h indicates the pronuncia- tion with hard g: cercare 'to look for' pagare 'to pay' cerco cerchi cerca cerchiamo cercate cercano pago paghi paga paghiamo pagate pagano In the verbs ending in -ciare and -giare, the i before letters o, a indicates the soft c or g and is not pronounced as a separate vowel.
There is no doubling of the i in the second person singular and first person plural forms: cominciare 'to begin' mangiare 'to eat' comincio mangio cominci mangi comincia mangia cominciawo mangiamo cominciate mangiate cominciano mangiano VERBS 2. Although some verbs appear irregular, their forms are in fact regular but are based on an older form of the infini- tive see 2. The following verbs have in common a pattern in which some persons are formed with g and some without see Appendix II for a complete list. Verbs following the pattern of porre are: imporre 'to impose'; proporre 'to propose'; supporre 'to suppose'; etc.
Other verbs following its pattern are: avvenire 'to happen'; divenire 'to become'; rinvenire 'to find'; svenire 'to faint'; etc. VERBS Uses of the present indicative Verbs in the present indicative express actions, facts and situations that happen or are going on at the moment when we speak or write. This applies to: a Actions and facts happening at the precise moment of speech: Mara, il telefono suona. Rispondi, per favore. Mara, the phone is ringing.
Please answer it! In my office the phone rings continuously in the mornings. La domenica le campane della chiesa suonano alle 8 meno On Sundays the church bells ring at 10 to 8. Gli Italiani fumano piu degli inglesi. Italians smoke more than English people. Le balene sono mammiferi. Whales are mammals. There are two situations in which the present indicative is used to refer to facts that are not in the present time: c Referring to the future, as happens frequently in conversational situations see Tomorrow the Spanish guests are coming.
L'anno prossimo compriamo una macchina nuova. Next year we'll buy a new car. This is done when the events are described in a narrative way and is very common in history books and news reports: Nel Roma diventa capitale dTtalia. Rome became the capital of Italy in Al quinto rigore Baggio sbaglia e l'ltalia perde il Campionato del Mondo. At the fifth penalty Baggio missed the penalty kick and Italy lost the World Cup. Several verbs have an irregular future indicative. A similar contracted pattern can be seen in the present tense of the conditional of the same verbs andare andrei , bere berrei , potere potrei.
The future of essere is very irregular: sard, sarai, sara, etc. Uses of the future The future indicative tense is naturally mainly used to refer to facts that will happen in a time subsequent to the time when we speak. However Italians use this tense sparingly, often preferring to use the present tense instead see The future tense is also used in Italian to express probability, as in English 'it will be. Saranno le tre meno dieci.
What time is it? It must be about ten to three. Suona il telefono. Chi saral Sara Davide. The phone is ringing. Who could it possibly be? It will be Davide.
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Future perfect futuro anteriore Forms The future perfect is a compound tense formed of the future tense of the auxiliary avere or essere together with the past participle of the verb. The forms of the future perfect are shown in the verb tables 2. Uses of the future perfect The future perfect is used to indicate facts or actions that will take place in the future in relation to the moment when we are speaking or writing , but before facts or actions that will happen even later; it is a sort of 'past in the future': Non so se avro finito il lavoro quando arrivera il cliente.
I don't know whether I will have finished the job by the time the customer comes. Stiamo aspettando la fattura. Quando avremo ricevuto la fattura, Le invieremo i soldi. We are waiting for the invoice. When we've received the invoice, we'll send you the money. Each of the three verbs in these two sentences could be illustrated by a time sequence: now future perfect future non so avro finito arrivera stiamo aspettando avremo ricevuto invieremo VERBS 2.
More examples of the use of the future perfect can be found in Imperfect indicative indicativo imperfetto The forms of the imperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. The imperfect indicative is formed by adding the endings -avo, -evo, -ivo for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd conjugations respectively to the stem of the verb.
It is the most regular of all the tenses of Italian verbs. The imperfect of the 2nd conjugation verbs with contracted infinitive in -urre is regular, but follows the pattern of the stem in due-, giving produrre: produc-evo, produc-evi. Similarly, the verbs with contracted infinitive in -orre have a regular imperfect based on the stem in pon-: disporre: dispon-evo; imporre: impon-evo; etc. The contracted infinitive bere has a regular imperfect bev-evo. The only true irregular imperfect is that of essere: ero, eri. Uses of the imperfect The imperfect indicative is mainly used to refer to the past see In using past tenses, one should always consider the context or aspect.
The question of aspect and the choice of imperfect or perfect is very important when referring to the past in Italian, particularly in situations where the two past forms are used in the same sentence see We used to have a coffee at I was watching television when the earthquake struck. Era mezzanotte, pioveva e la macchina correva silenziosa. It was midnight, it was raining and the car ran silently. Non ho mangiato perche non avevo fame. I didn't eat because I wasn't hungry 46 Moods and tenses of verbs Erano gia le 5.
La settimana scorsa mi hanno detto che tu venivi saresti venuto ieri. Last week I was told that you'd come yesterday. In a few cases the imperfect indicative is not used to refer to past time, but as a substitute for a different verb mood such as conditional or subjunctive : f To express a polite request or statement in place of the present conditional see I'd like some roses. Buongiorno, cercavo un libro di Umberto Eco.
Good morning, I'm looking for a book by Umberto Eco. Mi scusi, non volevo disturbare. Excuse me, I don't want to disturb you. This is more common in spoken than in written Italian. Se andavi piu piano non facevi l'incidente. If you had gone more slowly, you wouldn't have had the accident.
For the use of the imperfect of modal verbs dovere, potere, volere, see Of the two forms of the perfect compound and simple the compound is by far the more frequently used, especially in spoken language. The uses of the compound perfect and other past tenses are illustrated in Part B. Uses of the compound perfect The compound perfect refers to facts that are seen as completed, but have some relation to the present, generally in one of the following two contexts: a The past events are very near to the present time see also I've just had a coffee.
Avete capito quello che ho detto? Did you understand what I said? We came to England 20 years ago and we are still here. La Basilica di S. Pietro e stata costruita nel Cinquecento. Peter's Basilica was built in the 16th century and you can still see it now Because of these characteristics the compound perfect is very frequently used in conversational Italian, allowing the speaker to relate the facts of the past to the present.
Simple perfect passato remoto Forms The forms of the simple perfect passato remoto of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables 2. The most common irregularity is the short -si ending alternating with the longer form based on the stem of the infinitive, e.
Percid sono tomato a Napoli. I had a bad time living in Milan. That's why I came back to Naples and I am still here. I dinosauri scomparvero 65 milioni d'anni fa. Dinosaurs disappeared 65 million years ago. In spoken Italian, the simple perfect tends to be used very seldom in the north of Italy, but quite often in Tuscany, and in central and southern Italy, in the contexts mentioned above. In written language, the simple perfect is very common, espe- cially in narrative and historical language, because of the precise way in which it defines the past Typically it is the tense of fairy tales, when events are placed in a far and abstract past, in a different dimension separate from the reality of the present: Come andb che maestro Ciliegia, falegname, trovb un pezzo di legna che piangeva e rideva come un bambino.
Appena maestro Ciliegia ebbe visto quel pezzo di legno, si rallegrb tutto e, dandosi una fregatina di mani per la contentezza, borbottb a mezza voce: - Questo legno e capitato a tempo: voglio servirmene per fare una gamba di tavolino. Detto fatto, prese subito l'ascia arrotata per cominciare a levargli la scorza e a digrossarlo; ma quando fu li per lasciare andare la prima asciata, rimase col braccio sospeso in aria, perche senti una vocina sottile che disse raccomandandosi: - Non mi picchiar tanto forte! It is formed by the past participle and the imperfect of avere or essere.
The forms of the pluperfect of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables. Uses of the pluperfect It is used to refer to an event previous to an event placed in the past. See also Ricordo che tu eri arrivato da poco quando Maria ha telefonato. I remember that you had just arrived when Maria called.
Penso che alle 7. I think Franco had already closed the shop at 7. If we place the two examples on a 'time line' it is easier to see where the pluper- fect stands in the sequence of events: Pluperfect Past Present eri arrivato aveva chiuso quando Maria ha telefonato ricordo alle 7 penso Past anterior trapassato remoto Forms The trapassato remoto is formed by the simple perfect of the auxiliary avere or essere and the past participle. The forms of the trapassato remoto of the three regular conjugations are shown in the verb tables.
Uses of the past anterior The trapassato remoto is the form of pluperfect used when the main event or action is expressed by a verb in the simple perfect. Its use is rare and generally limited to the literary and more formal registers of the written language, and it is always intro- duced by a conjunction such as dopo, appena see also After he had said goodbye, he went out in a hurry. Appena fu uscita, tutti si misero a ridere.
As soon as she had gone out, everybody started laughing. The forms of the conditional for the three regular conditions are shown in the verb tables above. There are two tenses of the conditional mood: the present and the past. The verbs with an irregular present conditional show the same pattern already seen for the future indicative see 2. Uses of the present conditional a The condition may be explicitly mentioned, usually by using a clause begin- ning with se 'if. In Italian this is called periodo ipotetico see This type of sentence is made up of two parts: the condition and the conse- quence.
The condition is introduced by se 'if such and such were to happen' and expressed by a verb in the indicative or, more often, the subjunctive mood. The consequence, if the condition were to be met, is expressed by a verb in the indica- tive or, more often, conditional mood 'this would be the result'. Se fossi ricco, non lavorerei.
If I were rich, I wouldn't work. Se Lei mi stimasse davvero, mi darebbe piu responsabilita. If you really valued me, you would give me more responsibility. The politeness of these requests lies in their being subject to some implicit condi- tion: 'I'd like a coffee if it is available ', 'Could you open the window if it isn't too much trouble '. For further examples, see Vorrei un caffe. I would like a coffee. Potrebbe aprire la finestra?
Could you open the window? I think you should rest. Io sarei per la soluzione piu facile. I would be for the easier option. Apparently, the girl is the daughter of Beckham. The past conditional of the three regular conjugations is: parlare credere partire avrei parlato avrei creduto sarei partito Uses of the past conditional The past conditional is used in a similar way to the present conditional shown above, but mainly referring to past time: a It is used to express a consequence in a conditional sentence see also I wouldn't have been late yesterday if I had taken the train.
I would have preferred a coffee. I think Mrs Prati should have paid in cash. According to La Repubblica, two hundred illegal immigrants arrived on the island. My secretary told me that she would reserve the hotel immediately. Dieci anni fa non immaginavo che tu avresti fatto una camera cosi brillante.
Ten years ago I didn't imagine that you would have such a brilliant career. Subjunctive mood congiuntivo : introduction The subjunctive mood is mainly used to express something that is uncertain rather than definite, subjective rather than objective or a concept rather than a reality. Its most common use is in expressions of doubt, hope or supposition see 2. I'm not certain they understood me. Let's hope he'll arrive in time. Penso che siano le tre e venti. I think it must be twenty past three.
Verbs in the subjunctive mood always depend directly or indirectly on another verb, linked by che as in the examples above or by another conjunction, to form a complex sentence. Only in a few cases is the subjunctive used by itself, without depending on another verb, for example in the imperative forms see The 'uncertain' or 'subjective' nature of the verb phrase lies: i in the main verb on which the subjunctive depends, as in the examples above; ii in the conjunction that links the two verbs, as in the examples below see also 2.
I write to let you know the truth. Nonostante le abbia scritto un mese fa, Paola non mi ha ancora risposto. Although I wrote to her a month ago Paola hasn't yet replied to me. Qualsiasi canzone lei canti e sempre un piacere ascoltarla. Whatever song she sings, it is always a pleasure to listen to her. But often it is the subjunctive itself that provides a 'subjective' emphasis to what we say. The choice of indicative or subjunctive to convey the same facts, can shift the meaning of a sentence from the objective to the subjective, from the reality to the idea. Let's see two examples: a Ho bisogno dell'assistente che parla italiano.
I need the assistant who speaks Italian, just that particular one who is known to speak Italian. Ho bisogno di un assistente che parli italiano. In the second, the person I need may or may not be available, and therefore my need is presented as a 'subjec- tive' desire, an ideal, that cannot necessarily be met see also 9.
It seems that Olivetti is about to launch a new computer. Sembra che l'Olivetti stia per lanciare un nuovo computer. In the first of the two sentences above, the news is presented as almost certain, while the second sentence, by using the subjunctive, implies a higher degree of doubt or uncertainty about the reliability of the news. These and other uses of the subjunctive in different contexts are illustrated fully in Chapters 30 to 39 see also It is often said that the subjunctive mood is used ever less frequently in modern Italian.
However using the indicative instead of the subjunc- tive not only conveys a more informal style, but also a different meaning, and may well change substantially the message that we want to convey. Uses of the subjunctive In some cases, it is almost compulsory to use the subjunctive, even in the most familiar context of communication. This is particularly true when there is an explicit reference to the subjective value of a statement: a After verbs expressing hope, doubt, expectation, desire, fear, emotion such as: desiderare to wish dubitare to doubt sospettare to suspect sperare illudersi temere to hope to delude oneself to fear Spero che abbiate capito.
I hope you understood. Temo che sia troppo tardi. I'm afraid it is too late. Non illuderti che il Napoli possa vincere il campionato. Don't delude yourself that 'Napoli' can win the championship. Non avrei mai sospettato che tu fossi capace di mentire. I would never have suspected you of being able to lie.
We must pay the phone bill, before it is too late.