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Show More Show Less. Add to Cart. Any Condition Any Condition. See all 6. Compare similar products. You Are Viewing. Trending Price New. We have ratings, but no written reviews for this, yet. Be the first to write a review. Depending on the situation, the detachment may be able to use the same equipment it infiltrated with for its exfiltration. If using this COA, the detachment must ensure initial infiltration goes undetected because they will return to the same location to recover their cached equipment.
In particular, personnel must ensure the BLS area is totally sanitized. Nothing must indicate the presence of infiltration swimmers or an equipment-cached area. Personnel can cache equipment either inland using normal caching procedures or subsurface. Other methods of supplying the detachment with the requisite equipment include pre-positioning and resupply. If a decision is made to emplace an underwater cache, the detachment should attempt to identify suitable areas of sea floor during premission planning. If adequate charts or hydrographic surveys of the AOR exist, it may be possible to identify ideal bottom conditions for emplacing underwater caches.
Ideal conditions presuppose sufficient structures; for example, coral, rocky reefs, debris, or artificial constructs pier or bridge pilings, docks for the detachment to secure or anchor the cache so that it will not be disturbed. Flat, sandy bottoms that are exposed to the full effects of wave action make successful long-term caches almost impossible.
Underwater caches can be quite difficult to find and are normally not marked. Therefore, the detachment must use and record very accurate reference points and distances. In planning for the cache, personnel must consider how much weight will be required to make the cache negative-buoyant and ensure that it remains subsurface.
To do so will require a tremendous amount of weight, perhaps more than the detachment can carry. The weights attached to the cache must be easy to jettison during recovery. The amount of weight must not only keep the cache negative buoyant, it must also be unaffected by currents. The detachment should attach lifting devices to the outside of the cache so that upon recovery the weights are jettisoned and the lifting devices inflated. This method will allow for rapid recovery and ease of movement out of the water.
In most cases, the detachment will have to plan for some type of anchor system. Caches placed in water shallow enough to recover by breath-hold diving are susceptible to wave action. If the cache is not anchored with all of the bundles interconnected, it is susceptible to being dispersed by wave action. This is especially true if severe weather causes an increased sea state with its attendant surge. Detachments must investigate available technologies to determine what will be most effective in their particular circumstances.
Small craft anchors that can be wedged into bottom structures may present the most efficient solution. Personnel may also consider using mountaineering anchors for example, friends or chocks if suitable crevasses exist. Detachments must also determine how to protect the anchor ropes from chafing.
Underwater structure becomes extremely abrasive over time and a frayed or broken line endangers the integrity of the cache. Certain waterborne-related items are extremely sensitive to the environment. Personnel should completely seal buried items in airtight waterproof containers. Normally, heavy-duty plastic bags are adequate for small items. Large items, such as rubber boats, generally have their own heavy-duty rubber or canvas containers. Sub-surface caching is much more time-consuming and difficult.
Personnel must totally waterproof all sensitive items.
The cache must be at a depth that can be reached by surface swimmers or divers. The detachment must also consider tide height and tidal current data when weighing where and at what depth to put the cache. The rise and fall of the tide will affect the depth. In any case, personnel should position the cache as close to the shore or beach as possible.
Because the detachment will return to its infiltration site, it should place the cache site under observation for a period before recovery execution to ensure the cache area is secure. To ensure the best possible execution of the operation, the detachment should always rehearse the recovery operation. Another type of cache is pre-positioning.
If the support mechanism in the AO allows it, personnel should pre-position the equipment for the exfiltration. This task will normally occur or be possible in waterborne scenarios with active auxiliary or underground forces. The caching element emplaces the cache and submits a cache report that is forwarded to the detachment. The detachment then establishes surveillance, emplaces security, and recovers the cache IAW the recovery plan. A detachment may need to be resupplied with the equipment required to conduct a waterborne exfiltration. This additional support can be either a preplanned, on-call, or emergency resupply and is usually a contingency in case the primary exfiltration plan fails.
It is very hard to conduct an airborne resupply since the equipment must, in most cases, be airdropped very close to the beach departure point or in the water near the shore. If the area to be exfiltrated has a coastal air defense system, this resupply method becomes extremely dangerous for the mission aircraft.
However, if possible, one of the most effective means is to drop a rubber duck or two. The aircraft can fly parallel to and just off the coast and put out a rubber duck packed with the needed equipment. The exfiltrating detachment then simply swims to the equipment, unpacks it, and exfiltrates. If the equipment is not dropped in the water, it must be dropped very close to water because it may be hard to transport equipment overland.
Because of the difficulties associated with airdropping resupplies, they will normally be delivered by sea or overland. Resupply by sea can be done by simply infiltrating the required equipment and caching it if the resupply takes place a long time before exfiltration. The personnel bringing in the resupply can secure the equipment and exfiltrate with the detachment. If possible, and if a support mechanism within the AO will allow it, resupply personnel can deliver the exfiltration equipment over land by vehicle to the beach departure point.
Personnel can cache the equipment for later removal, or the detachment can begin the exfiltration as soon as the equipment arrives. The ability of any unit to conduct a specified mission ultimately depends on its level of training and capabilities. The level of training is the responsibility of the unit commander.
He ensures that his troops are prepared to carry out their wartime missions. A properly balanced training program must focus on the detachment as well as each individual to produce a reasonably proficient detachment. Regardless of the amount or type of equipment, the unit should train to the utmost with the available assets to maintain a viable waterborne operations capability. Surface swimming, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus scuba techniques, submarine operations, small boat operations, and waterborne insertion or extraction techniques require special training programs to attain and maintain proficiency.
The complexity of waterborne operations demands additional training, both for proficiency and for safety. Classes should range the entire spectrum of maritime operations to include infiltration and exfiltration tactics, means of delivery, equipment maintenance, and medical treatment of diving injuries.
The following paragraphs provide the B-team and C-team commanders an overview of the minimum training required to sustain their maritime operations detachments in a mission-ready status. It also provides the detachment a list of training requirements for developing their long-and short-range training plans. There are many techniques available to a detachment for use in a maritime environment to successfully infiltrate an operational area or to reach a specific target.
The training frequency matrix shows the minimum skills and topical areas to be covered during training. For each skill or area, there is a determination of how often training must be conducted. A description of each skill or area and details on what must be accomplished during the training periods follows. Finally, there is a listing of some of the critical tasks associated with waterborne operations.
They may be used as aids for both training and evaluation. This matrix Table identifies the subject areas that need to be covered during sustainment training. It also indicates how often this training must take place. Divers are required to perform diving duties IAW AR to maintain proficiency and draw special duty pay. As a minimum requirement, a combat diver must perform six qualifying dives within 6 months, one deep dive 70 to FSW within 12 months and be in a qualified status.
To maintain proficiency at infiltration swimming, detachments should conduct underwater compass swims monthly using open- or closed-circuit breathing apparatus. Swims should be done with properly waterproofed and neutrally buoyant rucksacks. This operation should use the team swim concept—the detachment is linked together by a buddy line, if need be, and moves through the water and onto the shore as one unit. To maintain currency, all combat divers are required to perform certain diving tasks at least once annually.
These tasks are outlined in AR Divers who maintain their currency do not have a formal requirement to requalify annually. Divers who have allowed their qualifications to lapse or who have returned to diving duty after a period of inactivity must requalify for diving duty IAW AR Diving supervisors and DMTs are required to perform duties as a CDS or DMT at least once every 6 months and to attend a dive supervisor or dive medical technician training seminar every 2 years.
In addition to the above-stated annual requalification requirements, each combat diver must undergo a Type-B medical examination every 3 years with a minimum of a Type B update annually. The goal of all sustainment training is for the detachment to be able to execute a full mission profile.
To that end, the detachment must conduct a semiannual operational mission exercise that puts as many of their mission ready skills to use at one time as can be realistically coordinated. This exercise can be conducted in conjunction with other training requirements mentioned above.
Multiple delivery methods should be used, coupled with a surface swim, an underwater navigation team swim, or both. This method would be followed by a turtle-back swim to a point 1, meters offshore, a closed-circuit underwater team compass swim with equipment to the BLS, and an over-the-beach infiltration.
Following a UW or DA mission, the team would execute an over-the-beach exfiltration and some form of marine extraction. It may of course be impossible to include all of these phases in one tactical exercise. However, multiple phases must be conducted in each exercise. Realistic training challenges the detachment to excel and gives the commander an effective tool to assess mission capabilities.
Meeting these requirements does not guarantee an individual combat diver or combat diver detachment to be mission-ready. These are the minimum requirements which, when met, allow combat divers to engage in the training necessary to achieve a combat, mission-ready status. Weather and its effects on the friendly and enemy situations is a critical factor in mission planning and the safe execution of any operation.
The maritime environment in which waterborne operations take place is always changing. Those changes have immediate and urgent effects on the types of small vessels available to an infiltrating or exfiltrating detachment. This chapter focuses on the effects weather has on the water, and the potential problems detachments face while operating small boats or conducting an infiltration swim.
Timely weather forecasts coupled with an understanding of the basic principles of weather patterns and their effects are a key element in the planning of waterborne operations. The environmental factors that have the greatest impact on waterborne operations include wind, storms, waves, surf, tides, and currents. This chapter examines the basic elements of weather, types of storm systems, storm propagation, and how to forecast weather from local observations. It also briefly explains how to read a weather map. High winds are a genuine concern for personnel conducting waterborne operations.
High winds can greatly impact on almost every type of waterborne operation. High seas are directly related to wind speed. The Beaufort Wind Scale is the internationally recognized guide to expected wave height and sea states under varying wind conditions Table When planning waterborne operations, planners should use this scale to define a particular state of wind and wave.
Without wind, weather would remain virtually unchanged. Wind is a physical manifestation of the move ment of air masses. It is the result of horizontal differences in air pressure. Air flows from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area producing winds. The pressure gradient is shown on weather maps as a series of isobars or pressure contours connecting places of equal barometric pressure. The closer together the isobars appear, the steeper the pressure gradient and the higher the wind speed Figure Wind direction is determined based on where it is coming from.
If a person is looking north and the wind is in his face, it is a North wind. Wind speed is reported in knots and direction is reported in degrees true. Major air masses move on a global scale. One of the modifiers for this movement is the Coriolis effect. This diversion of air is toward the right in the Northern Hemisphere and toward the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Warm air expands and rises creating areas of lower air density and pressure.
Cool denser air, with its greater pressure, flows in as wind to replace the rising warm air. These cells of high and low pressure have their own internal rotation influenced by. High-pressure cells have clockwise rotating winds and are called anticyclones. Low-pressure cells have counterclockwise rotating winds and are called cyclones.
Local weather patterns are strongly affected by terrain and daily heating and cooling trends. Desert regions heat and cool rapidly; wooded or wet areas change temperature more slowly. Mountainous areas experience updrafts and downdrafts in direct proportion to the daily cycles. Coastal areas will experience onshore and offshore winds because of the differential solar heating and cooling of coastal land and adjoining water.
The advent of a high-pressure cell usually denotes fair weather. A high-pressure cell is evident to the observer when skies are relatively clear and winds are blowing from the southwest, west, northwest, and north. Low-pressure cells are the harbingers of unsettled weather. They are evident when clouds gather and winds blow from the northeast, east, southeast, and south.
Winds that shift from the north toward the east or south signal deteriorating weather. Impending precipitation is signaled by winds especially a north wind shifting to the west and then to the south. Wind shifts from the east through south to west are an indicator of clearing weather. The approach of high and low-pressure systems can also be tracked and anticipated with a barometer. Some wristwatches have an altimeter and barometer function.
Barometers are most useful when monitoring trends. Normal barometric pressure is 29 inches of mercury Hg. Planners should take readings at regular intervals and record changes. A drop in barometric pressure signals deteriorating weather an approaching low-pressure system. A rise in barometric pressure indicates clearing weather the approach of a high pressure system. Clouds are the most visible manifestation of weather.
Cloud formations are valuable in determining weather conditions and trends. Clouds form when the moisture in rising warm air cools and condenses. They may or may not be accompanied by precipitation. Naming conventions for cloud types are intended to convey crucial information about the altitude and type of cloud.
Different cloud types have descriptive names that depend mainly on appearance, but also on the process of formation as seen by an observer. Cloud nomenclature that describes the cloud type is usually combined with prefixes or suffixes that describe the altitude of that cloud. Key descriptive terms are as follows:. Prefix and suffix that describes a vertical heaping of clouds.
Castellated refers to a turreted cumulo-type cloud. These clouds grow vertically on summer afternoons to produce showers and thunderstorms. Prefix and suffix that describes clouds that are full of rain or already have rain falling from them. Despite an almost infinite variety of shapes and forms, it is still possible to define ten basic types. These types are grouped by altitude and are further divided into three levels: high, middle, and low.
High-altitude clouds have their bases at or above 18, feet and consists of ice crystals. Cirro is a prefix denoting a high-altitude cloud form. Cirrus is the name of a particular, very high, wispy cloud comprised of ice crystals Figures and It appears as delicate curls or feathers miles above the earth.
When these clouds form feathery curls, they denote the beginning of fair weather. Cirrocumulus is a layer of cloud without shading, comprised of grains or ripples, and more or less regularly arranged. Cirrostratus is a transparent, whitish veil of cloud Figure It partially or totally covers the sky and produces the characteristic halo around the sun or moon.
These clouds thickening or lowering indicate an approaching front with precipitation. Middle clouds have bases located between 7, and 18, feet.