As it can be seen from the facts summarized above, the upper tunnel without additional intermediate feeds with a slightly higher but steadier gradient is the more plausible solution for the Hellenistic period - precisely because a plaster was still found in a few areas. The fact is, the upper tunnel has been abandoned in a construction phase!
Almost over the entire length, contrary to the other practices, the construction shafts are unlocked and "marked" by building rubble lying in front of them. The existing gradient was reduced and created up to 5m high two-story cross sections. By comparing the data, however, it was noticeable that the incoming new Qanat Fir'aun could not match the maximum feasible changes of the old upper route due to the already very small incline and the necessary alignment.
At this time, the old Qanattunnel was completely abandoned and reused only shortly before Gadara, a long time later. However, even after the mountain tunnel "Dahr Defur" in Wadi Ain et Turab, the alignment and the routing properties continued to be complied with and implemented. Both the inclusion of the source and the gradients thus obtained a consistent engineering image. Here you will find the link to the end of the Qanat Fir'aun at the bridges in front of Gadara. In addition, I would like to reiterate here that I wish a constructive criticism of this thesis and would also like to provide the correct surveying results of the project etc.
The datas used by M. These alternative facts for the determination of the gradients in the book, rather served there in order to let flow the water in the sense of the "intended theses". Here we can find 2 different aqueduct in qanat-construction made with mining techniques.
Starting from the two tunnels in Gadara and its previous interpretation, the upper qanatroute has always been referred to as the younger one and the lower one as the elder one. Furthermore, they are called in some literature as Qanat Turab below and Qanat Fir'aun above. Based on the building condition, parallels were made to the Gadaren tunnels. Thus, the state of construction of the upper Qanatsystem is characterized by consistently open construction shafts, sometimes very roughly hewn tunnel sections which are sometimes inclined against the supposed flow direction and are mostly unpaved.
Several geological inevitable situations, or situations appearing as general construction errors, lead to tunnel heights of 5m with a demonstrably doubled cut out profile. A few kilometers farther, this Qanat opposite Samar comes to light and shows us a very narrow section of only 50 cm wide and about 80 cm high. The thesis that one can deduce the belonging of the Qanat Fir'aun arriving from the east from the outer shape of the construction shaft, can not be maintained. Both on the eastern route as well as in the area of Wadi Ain et Turab, various cross-sections inside, construction shaft sizes or starting levels for the shafts can be demonstrated for both Qanatsystems.
The following pictures should briefly show you the multitude of discovered construction shafts only of the upper Qanatroute. Expediently are only c14 determinations, or other archaeological evidences. Another important clue is the comparison of the way in which they are routed, the relationship between the two Qanatsystems and the Qanat Fir'aun route arriving from the east Syria. Further information, theses and questions concerning the second water system can be found under the following link the second Qanatsystem available in Wadi Ain et Turab.
After reaching the watershed between Ibdar and Malka, the Qanat Fir'aun continues west towards Gadara.
Located between Wadi Defur and Wadi Ain et Turab, this section of the tunnel runs under the The Dhar Defur plateau has a maximum of m asl in this area. The maximum coverage of the tunnel was over 77m. Please take further information from the following sketch:. Particularly interesting is the largest construction shaft of the entire aqueduct route, found by me in November With a diameter of OK terrain the construction shaft width of 21 x 23 m height m asl is minimize to about 8m depth to about 17m of diameter.
Here, the upcoming rock horizon is already visible. By permanently produced rubble and garbage of the population living nearby, the construction shaft is filled at this level. Due to the enormous dimensions, however, it can be ruled out that the construction shaft is completely filled up to the aqueduct sole of the aqueduct. It is not very likely that this construction was needed for ventilation this would have been a much smaller , but especially needed for lifting the excavated masses, since on at least m aqueduct length, no further construction shafts were tunneled because of the height and for efficiency reasons.
Further investigation could not be made without adequate security. From an engineering point of view following solution approaches result; which I would like discuss. In addition, in each case, the question arises how the large open area of the construction shaft was secured or closed at the end of the construction project. Did the builder had a stone vault be moved in here, which still exists today!!! For the construction shaft located at the upper end of the Wadi Defur, such a protection due to surface water, moving soil and possible debris, which otherwise would have caused damage to the aqueduct , was definitely necessary.
If the interested reader should be familiar with appropriate solutions from literature, ancient or even medieval mining, I would be happy to make contact with you. Already S. Mittmann wrote in his book about Northern Jordan, that for a temporal allocation of the plateau the usual methods do not apply. He could not find ceramics or any other artifacts that could be classified. So we have to go back to the search for facts in the literature. Ain Um Furun, was named at G. Both were inflowing sources into the Qanat Fir'aun. After the Aqueduct was coming out of the Wadi esh Shellale, not circling the massif of Al Mughair, the aqueduct continues to went through massiv eroded cliffs with steepy steps above and below the road and approaches to round the ruins of the Khirbet er Rahub.
Hardly cutting this plateau on the eastern and northern flanks, the aqueduct then turns north again towards Al Al and Kharja also called "Dschorda" in E. Brandenburg in In addition, three more upstream sources were fed from the south, at the Khirbet er Rahub, in the aqueduct. Mittmann does not mention the spiral stairwell found by the Qanat Fir'aun team in , but sees a spring directly on the northeast corner without any further description, the southern one is bricked up!!
All water was directed to the pumping station in the 70s. Through various construction activities and Bulldozereinsatz the long north side and the east flank have been massively damaged since my first visit in Sept Probably as a result, the "spiral stairwell" has come to light again. Schumacher describes the plateau almost rectangular with x70 m. Mittmann has slightly different dimensions On the northern edge is still visible a walled 6m wide road.
Due to its striking location, but any absence of massive building remains, I believe that this constructed platform originally was a Roman temporary auxiliary fortification to build or protect the aqueduct route. Next to the road and the gate and within the "castellum" there were probably tents and places for cattle and horses and perhaps a fortified building. This building was presumably on the southwestern corner of the platform, or as was often found elsewhere, smaller towers. Schumacher himself speaks of "a fort for protection of these sources", but without making any further assignment.
The entire information was apparently not available for S. Mittmann, since he does not refer to it and does not compare the state at that time with his survey results.
The term forester was taking on a whole new meaning. Christianity was a big step in Romanizing, it's worth it to take a closer look. Z Guter Zustand teilw. Keilholz and thus proved to be true. The assay was performed according to the method of Harry , J. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. The term Heimat , one could argue, has entered into so many different discussions in such diverse areas of German society that it would be a great mistake to search for a solitary meaning, a single truth beyond all the white noise.
Likewise, as mentioned above, due to the lack of ceramics, he does not prescribe the temporal classification of the stone plateau. He in turn looks at the pathway-relations, as well as the name-giving caves located here in the hillside and writes at least referring to the Crusader time about it as "rightly referred to as Cavea Roob". Bronze or Iron Age settlements are in immediate proximity and can be demonstrated by their typical shape and ceramic findings and can be clearly excluded for the Khirbet er Rahub see also S.
Possibly even extensions were made during the Crusader era, so the timing of the found spiral stairwell shaft can only be plausibly assigned to this time. This construction was rather uncommon in the other Roman context and the size and type of the execution speaks also for a subsequent enlargement. Steuernagel's "Adschlun" taken from the east, the shaft could not be recognized because it was buried under the masses of collapsed walls of a supposed corner tower. Surrounded by a wall up to 10 m above the incoming old road-connections and extended by a permanent water supply within the system, the Kh.
Er Rahub certainly corresponded very well to the requirements of the Crusader period. The additional location of Bet Rehob, sometimes mentioned in the literature, also known from the Judgment Book of the Bible, is only vague, and refers more to Tell el Muallaqa some m further south, or Tell er Rahub. According to S. Mittmann the Tell er Rahub is called "Tell el mgeyir" and lies on the ridge east above the Ain er Rahub. According to the Bible, Rehob was a rather rich city that resisted and lay in a fertile plain near the Dan.
Often though not always , the River Dan is identified with the Jarmuk or Wadi Medan, especially in ancient literature. So there are some scholars who seek this rebel on Tell esh Shehab. The Qanat Fir'aun now continues along the western slope of the Wadi er rahub and follows the Wadi esh-shellale before flowing across the plateau towards Al-Al and Kharja. Here you find the link to the following aqueduct section. Some construction shafts, along the Roman road on the Wadi, documented by S. Mittmann, or at Kh.
Ez Zeraqon, were already known. The overall guidance of the aqueduct, in the steep slopes of the wadi, was further confirmed by theoretical considerations, old and new satellite imagery, and field surveys. In this case, the tunnel sections which have become necessary due to repeated breaks in the soft limestone are striking, in different planes at the same height. The construction shafts were here almost level, or usually not higher than 5m above the level of the aqueduct, built on the crests of the ravines eroded by erosion slopes.
The fact that the exact depth of the erosion gullies and the geology, in which the height of the construction shafts had to be assessed anew by the Roman geologists, undoubtedly lets look every contemporary planner and contractor respectfully. Over many of these eroded gullies, but also side valleys, the Qanat Fir'aun goes upstreams the Wadi, up to the here also described in detail bridge The Great Bridge in Wadi esh Shellale and its settling basin.
In the process, further sources, directly or via secondary lines, were integrated, thus compensating losses or intermediate withdrawals.
The aqueduct section behind the bridge in Wadi esh Shellale is characterized by another peculiarity, on the northeastern slope of the Early Bronze Age settlement Kh. Ez Zeraqon. A bypass to the main line was necessary. The bypass that became necessary as a result was first recorded in by the University of Karlsruhe and S. Over a length of almost m at the surface and over m in depth, the aqueduct route had to be laid deep into the massif. Here, not only the coordination and the execution are particularly noteworthy, since thereby steep and over 60m deep construction shafts were necessary even from the plateau of the Khirbet ez Zeraqon.
In the further course of the Qanat Fir'aun went back north and pierced north of today's village Al Mughair the ridge to a major side valley, the Wadi he Rahub. On the Ain er Rahub, with its caves lying nearby, was the place often named in the Crusader time Cavea Roob. Here you will find the direct link to the following section of Qanat Fir'aun. This Section starts as a ground-level canal about 1m below the top edge and was built in an open construction style about 1.
Until reaching the steep slopes of the Wadi esh Shellale, the aqueduct was up to 35m deep below the upper edge of the terrain. Striking and noteworthy in this section of the route appears the orientation between the two highest points of Et Turra and Al Mughair, located on the opposite mountain spur intersected by the Wadi esh Shellale valley.
In detail, there was a slight curvature in the line, because the still recognizable construction shafts, which are characterized by surface characteristics, were always located a few meters north of the respective low point of the plain. This should avoid, that flushing surface water or sludge into the construction shafts, even in heavy rainfall events. As we can see from the last remaining construction shaft, which is located directly on the eastern shore of Wadi Shomar, there was a steep staircase access.
This had been shielded by rock, or masonry walls in the direction of the higher ground in each case. The Wadi Shomar flows from Ramtha coming from the south,to the west of At-Turra and then crashes over cascades in the Wadi esh Shellale. Coming from Abou el Qantara, the aqueduct crossed the path at the border hall, left of the visible path. An old satellite image shows the individual construction shafts in this area particularly clearly. The Qanat Fir'aun continues into the Wadi esh Shellale, more information on the following section is available there.
Here you can see the exact geolocation of the plain. This lake, which is fed by the strongest springs of the entire region Ras el Ain located directly northeast, had compared to today, in former times still much larger dimensions. The settlement hill, Kom el Muzeirib, located on a lake island and still unexplored, was probably of paramount importance 3, years ago. It is certain that the lake was protected with its nearby strong sources of 2 in parts still preserved castles.
Although it is reported in the literature just by the Kulaat el Atika that this is an Arab foundation, but revealed Greek inscriptions and the clear design discovers also, that both castles where built as an Auxilliary Fort in the Quadriburgia style , which where often used at the turn of times. The water level of the lake, of m asl, created the possibility of supplying the Qanat Fir'aun with a required large amount of water of additional approx.
Outside of the village Area of Muzeirib, it was possible to prove that the trench system in the direction of Abou al Qantara is still present today. A sidebranch for a additional supply of Tell el Ashari from the Qanat Fir'aun, via a secondary line there is conceivable. This would have been possible anyway on the countless sources in its vicinity. You can also find more information here The places of the Decapolis under the sub-site Dion. Explicitly, I would like to explain at this point that there are no indications of the aqueduct immediately on site in Muzeirib , this also applies to old travel reports!
The text excerpt from G. Schumacher's -Across the Jordan, which is cited in the book "Water for the Decapolis", is also not more plausible by multiple entries 4x in the book , especially because the cited text passage was deliberately or just by chance, has been shortened through the author of these book. The following sentence already shows us that the two parallel rows of stones are not a remainder of an aqueduct channel, but are widely spaced stones, similar to a collonade, which were separated by a broad street on which market was often held , Here is the correct excerpt from Schumacher's book.
In the further course of the Qanat Fir'aun follows the pressurepipe at Abou el Qantara. The about 4km long side line went to the ancient Adraha, with its highest part el Kerak and the nymphaeum lying on the slope side supplied with water from the Qanat Fir'aun. The analysis was done here, as in the original Roman planning, in reverse order to determine necessary terrain heights and cross sections corresponding to the "requested" amounts of water on the nymphaeum can.
Today, the Roman nymphaeum called "Hammam Ziknany" is reminiscent in its form and design, of the "Kalybe" Qanawat, Shaba, Bosra , which is often found in Hauran. Possibly also existed two buildings as in Bosra opposite lying side by side. Today there are only 3 walls in parts, which still represent about half of the front facade, but here were at least still 4 discharges in the basalt masonry coming from the ceiling. Detailed measurements are not known except for the measured elevations in m asl above sea level.
An incoming water volume of approx. The water reservoir was safely distributed over a larger roof area. The upper edge of the water at the outlet pool was therefore not higher than m asl. Unfortunately, neither J. Wetzstein still G. Schumacher a detailed description, or even the location of the "pharaoh tower" has given.
Wetzstein seems to have it only described from an other one, and G. Schumacher, referring to Wetzstein's travelogue, could only guess, 50 years later, what ruins, on the north side of the wadi, were meant. The statement J. Wetzsteins, that the water had been transported on arches to the pharaoh tower, was very probably created only from the naming of this Aqueduct.
The commonly used name at the time was simply Kanatir Far'un , the arches of the pharaoh. So also the interpretation of W. Thomson in his travelogue of Here he also confirms that the auxiliary direction arrived the city area from the northeast, but where the pharaoh tower stood, or at all a mention of it, we do not find in W. Old aerial photographs, a rare Dera'a city map, which I was able to buy together with the maps created by G. Schumacher, help us, in turn, supplemented by the digital elevation evaluation.
In addition, this building shows connections to the proven incoming and outgoing aqueductareas, through ground depressions and changes. In addition, G. Schumacher's card thanks to the DPV for this shows that the line ran exactly along the bridge. The pressure line through the Wadi Ez Zedi, from the so-called Pharaoh tower over the slope on the Wadi down to the bridge and then back up to the head basin on the roof of the Nympheum, is m long in 3D.
Because of the curvatures of the Suggested Course in addition and through the pipe generally creates a pressure loss, so it was a height difference between inlet and outlet basin of at least 3. So it should have been a minimum of 2 pressurepipes at this section. In , I explored the northern slope of El Kerak and on a broken vertical incision I was able to locate and document at least one of the pressure lines. However, it is not known, if there was another pressurepipe between the other one,which is still hidden in the Slope.
The direction of this pressurepipe corresponded exactly to the extension of the eastern parapet of the Wadi ez Zedi bridge in the valley. So far, the system can be very plausibly understood, in the following, the other part of the derivation sidebranch is examined to the pharao tower.
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The verified main line of the Qanat Fir'aun traverses at one point the old Roman road Deraa - Bosra, from this point there was also an exactly straight line from an elevation m to the Castellum 1, the pharao tower J. Here is the terrain height at about m. The 3D length of this track is m. Note: a shortening of the route and division into free gauge and pressure range is unlikely due to the topography.
According to the previous paragraph, the inlet basin on the "pharaoh tower" was at least With the length of m and those assumed to have the same pipe dimensions, there is an estimated difference in height of almost 8. The hydr. As a result of this extravagant investigation, it was feasible to supply the nymphaeum in the assumed form by means of two identical pressure pipelines.
These were running completely close to the ground level and a single pressure tower at elevation m asl and with a height of no more than 8. After acquiring and the evaluating of special flyer images of the Australian War Memorial, as well as the city map of Dera'a of the German General Staff of , the "Pharao Tower" according to my virtual reconstruction has looked something like this.
It is interesting that there were similar constructions from the same period also elsewhere, one of the aqueducts which provided today's Lyon had at Craponne such a building comparable to the Pharaoh tower. A as complicated by M. But the necessary volumes of the arches would have surpassed that of the main bridge, Jisr el Mesari , many times over, and are nowhere traceable.
The pipeline described by Wetzstein and sketched by G. Schumacher, which was the real pressure pipe to the hill of El Kerak or to the Nymphaeum, is technically incomprehensible in view of the location, high up on the parapet. It can be assumed that the rebuilding of the Zedi Bridge as also stated by G. Schumacher either the pipe elements were reused or there was another pipe which crossed the wadi and the bridge. See below For this purpose, it also seems important to pay attention to the wording in J.
Wetzstein's description, he speaks on page several times of "tubes" in the majority and the course within the 1. Inexplicable remains, however, once again as in the "Underground City" the size estimation in Consul Wetzstein descriptions because the today and certainly then bridge measures even at the extreme sill ends just 82m, the paces one pace are usually 2. Further information about the Zedi bridge in Dera'a can be obtained here under the category bridges. From the maps of the DPV and individual documents, however, are also from north-northwest incoming aqueduct residues, which must also be included in the consideration.
After analysis, it can be assumed that a third pipe system, presumably later, was built. This led either a subset of the main aqueduct, via a completely different path, or the water of another reservoir to the Dera'a Area. A diversion basin to be recognized from the aerial photos, similar to the well-known diversion basin of Metz in France, also led in the course to the Wadi ez Zedi bridge in the valley.
The non-complete sheathed clay pipe from G. Schumacher's description, which runs on the upper edge of the parapet, fulfills all static and height requirements for this 3rd pipe system. In terms of height, however, only the basin directly behind the bridge, or "Birket", could be supplied with water. Schumacher writes "and descends over the basalt cliffs to Jisr el Mesari.
The old builders had no need at this point, as they could not reach both, the oldest part of the city, el Kerak about m asl as well as the high-altitude Roman district south and south-east of it about m asl. The aqueduct watercourse now circled around the southern Zediufer to reach the city in the southeast. The maindirection from the jisr el mesari bridge over the "underground city" below the actual city and past El Kerak has the distinct advantage that there are water reservoirs without stagnant water or overflowing water. For example at the nighttime the water has just have to flow away into the valley.
Everything is kept flowing and will be resumed when needed. The bridge in the city valley of Dera'a could only, as described in Adraha's pressurepipe sideline , with their pressure pipes only the supply of El Kerak, or Hammam Siknani have served. The "underground city" described in detail by Wetzstein very prosaic and by G. The walls are plastered "remains of ancient plaster work In the description of G. Schumacher, he does not reach the interior beyond the "normal" door "Entrance", but he crawls through a tunnel from which he then falls from a certain height into the so called "vestibule".
The niches referred to in the Description, as shelves "Mangers"mentioned, were at least partially apparently incoming tunnel sections. The often expressed thesis of the "subterranean escape city" misses on closer inspection of any logic. No high society, let alone the Romans, can seriously believe that they are retreating in really narrow corridors, without various exits in order to escape the dangers of war.
The rectangular "air holes" made with masonry which G. Schumacher proves that as he notes that ruins are always to be found at these "air holes" on the surface and also shows this in section left. William of Tire describes this in one of his books, and this supports the suggestion made by me before, explicitly he mentioned the thirsty crusaders, which tried to draw water from the various draw wells of the city Adratum , but always from the defenders in the depths the Ropes were cut through!
From the situation can be concluded that also the water of the eastern outskirts located Ain et Tawileh was fed into the system. In ancient Athens there was a similar system, but also in Gadara, a tunnel system led in wild branches was found and studied by P. Keilholz among others. Piano Sonata, Op. Symphony, Op. L'inganno felice. Piano Sonata No.
Nocturne, Op. Octet, Op. Piano Quintet, Op. Divertissement in F major, Op. String Quartet, Op. I Capuleti e i Montecchi piano 4 hands, arr. Introduction et variations sur l'air polonais, Op. Septet, Op. Duo concertant, Op.
Carnaval, Op. Souvenir de 'Guido et Ginevra' de Halevy, Op. Kinderszenen, Op. Piano Sextet No. String Quartet No. Grande Cello Sonata, Op. Piano Trio No. Grand Sonata No. Waltz in A-flat major, Op. Fantasie nach Schiller's Gedicht 'Resignation', Op. Andante and Scherzo capriccioso, Op. Fantasia on Rossini's 'Barber of Seville', Op. String Quintet, Op. String Quintet No. Piano Trio in G minor, Op.
Cello Sonata, Op. Lohengrin, WWV Violin Sonata, Op.
Scherzo, Op. Florinda, Op. Piano Sonata in B minor, S. Rondoletto sur la Cracovienne, Op. Tristan und Isolde, WWV Tristan und Isolde, WWV 90 full score. Piano Sextet, Op. String Sextet, Op. String Octet, Op.
Suite No. Gavotte, Courante, Sarabande, Op.
Astorga piano reduction ed. Sonate quasi fantaisie, Op. Violin Sonata No. Nocturnes, Op. Neckens Polka, Op. School of Trills and Staccatos, Op. Piano Trio in E minor. Horn Concerto in E-flat major, K. String Quintet parts. Horn Concerto in D major, K. Variations on a Hungarian Folk Song, Op. Piano Concerto No. Nocturno, Op. Viola Sonata, Op. Aquarellen, Op. Second Modern Suite, Op. String Trio, Op. Symphonische Variationen, Op. Piano Concerto, Op. Phantasie, Op. Suite in D minor, Op.
Brucken Fock. Pastorale, Op. Violin Concerto in D major, Op. Neuer Romanzero, Op. String Quintet in E minor.
Piano Quartet. Amor und Psyche, Op. Organ Works. Cello Concerto No. Violin Concerto, Op. Suite for Violin and Piano, Op.
Valse-Impromptu, Op. Concertino in E-flat major, Op. Orchestral Suite No. Notturno, Op. Franciscus, Op. Org by De Pauw. Alter Reitermarsch 'Prinz von Coburg' score. Cappricio for Flute and Piano, Op. Werke von G. Jenner: Clarinet Sonata, Op. Dante Symphony, S. Concertino No. Rapsodia piemontese, Op.