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About us. Editorial team. Michael Sullivan. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 13 4 - Continental Philosophy.
Edit this record. Mark as duplicate. Find it on Scholar. Request removal from index. Revision history. Configure custom resolver. Primal Ground: Addiction and Hunger for the Wild.
Mooney - - Human Studies 24 4 Disorders of Desire: Addiction and Problems of Intimacy. James Hart - - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 40 2 Thus, someone can be silly, wasteful, vain and impolite, and still self-actualize. Less than two percent of the population achieve self-actualization.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory has made a major contribution to teaching and classroom management in schools. Rather than reducing behavior to a response in the environment , Maslow a adopts a holistic approach to education and learning. Maslow looks at the complete physical, emotional, social, and intellectual qualities of an individual and how they impact on learning. Applications of Maslow's hierarchy theory to the work of the classroom teacher are obvious. Before a student's cognitive needs can be met, they must first fulfill their basic physiological needs.
For example, a tired and hungry student will find it difficult to focus on learning. Students need to feel emotionally and physically safe and accepted within the classroom to progress and reach their full potential. Maslow suggests students must be shown that they are valued and respected in the classroom, and the teacher should create a supportive environment. Students with a low self-esteem will not progress academically at an optimum rate until their self-esteem is strengthened.
Maslow , p. The most significant limitation of Maslow's theory concerns his methodology. Maslow formulated the characteristics of self-actualized individuals from undertaking a qualitative method called biographical analysis. He looked at the biographies and writings of 18 people he identified as being self-actualized.
From these sources, he developed a list of qualities that seemed characteristic of this specific group of people, as opposed to humanity in general. From a scientific perspective , there are numerous problems with this particular approach. First, it could be argued that biographical analysis as a method is extremely subjective as it is based entirely on the opinion of the researcher.
Personal opinion is always prone to bias, which reduces the validity of any data obtained. Therefore Maslow's operational definition of self-actualization must not be blindly accepted as scientific fact. Furthermore, Maslow's biographical analysis focused on a biased sample of self-actualized individuals, prominently limited to highly educated white males such as Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein, William James, Aldous Huxley, Beethoven. Although Maslow did study self-actualized females, such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Mother Teresa, they comprised a small proportion of his sample.
This makes it difficult to generalize his theory to females and individuals from lower social classes or different ethnicity. Thus questioning the population validity of Maslow's findings.
Are you wondering why you do what you do? Learn how Tony Robbins breaks down how primal and spiritual needs fuel your actions. As well as the obvious 'basic needs' for water, food and shelter, humans have a set of basic needs which are not so obvious, but just as essential to emotional wellbeing. That's why we at Uncommon Knowledge & Hypnosis Downloads talk a lot about the Primal Human Needs.
Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to empirically test Maslow's concept of self-actualization in a way that causal relationships can be established. Another criticism concerns Maslow's assumption that the lower needs must be satisfied before a person can achieve their potential and self-actualize.
This is not always the case, and therefore Maslow's hierarchy of needs in some aspects has been falsified. Through examining cultures in which large numbers of people live in poverty such as India , it is clear that people are still capable of higher order needs such as love and belongingness. However, this should not occur, as according to Maslow, people who have difficulty achieving very basic physiological needs such as food, shelter, etc. Also, many creative people, such as authors and artists e. Psychologists now conceptualize motivation as a pluralistic behavior, whereby needs can operate on many levels simultaneously.
A person may be motivated by higher growth needs at the same time as lower level deficiency needs.
The survey was conducted from to Respondents answered questions about six needs that closely resemble those in Maslow's model: basic needs food, shelter ; safety; social needs love, support ; respect; mastery; and autonomy. They also rated their well-being across three discrete measures: life evaluation a person's view of his or her life as a whole , positive feelings day-to-day instances of joy or pleasure , and negative feelings everyday experiences of sorrow, anger, or stress. The results of the study support the view that universal human needs appear to exist regardless of cultural differences.
However, the ordering of the needs within the hierarchy was not correct. Hoffman, E.
The right to be human: A biography of Abraham Maslow. Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc. Kenrick, D. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19 1 , Maslow, A.
A Theory of Human Motivation. While breathing, think about 3 things you are grateful for and then what 3 things you are going to do today or tomorrow to achieve your goals. Prayer while breathing is another option. Work on breathing everywhere and anywhere: before bed, upon waking, red lights, during exercise, before eating given it is our number one need. We can change our physiological state in seconds via breathing.
If we master breathing, we can enjoy life at its fullest. Start your day with 16 oz. Drink oz. Drink another 4 oz. Use filtered water for drinking and showering. Consider using Aquasauna. Avoid keeping your water in plastic containers. Wind down in the evenings around 9 pm and do your best to be asleep no later than 10 pm. My goal for you is to sleep at least 7 hours per night.
Your body fat will reduce and your overall health will improve massively with good, consistent, daily sleep. Control your morning by preparing at night as you wind down for the evening.
Do your best to avoid TV, cell phones and computers at least 1 hour before bed to optimize melatonin levels and reduce cortisol, so that you can sleep better. For more go to: Sleep Tips. Above all commit to a nutrition model and give it at least 4 weeks before changing the model.
See my Daily Nutrition Record for a handy tool to use. Slow down and chew.