Beyond the “Broader West” Debate: What Will Turkey Stand for? (On Turkey)

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If Turkish banks are fined by the US Treasury, the AKP party may suffer at the polls, a dynamic that is sure to be keeping Turkish leaders awake at night. But there may be more. Indeed, there are some worrying indications that US authorities may expand the investigative net, also involving other Turkish banks and institutions. Threats range from individual fines and sanctions to the potential that banks or financial institutions have their licence suspended, preventing them from operating in the US market or in US currency.

Given that Zarrab has testified that different Turkish banks were involved in the transactions with Iran, there is a possibility that more Turkish banks become implicated in the probe. Such eventuality would pose economic but also political and even geopolitical challenges for Turkey, the US-Turkey and West-Turkey relations. In light of these developments, US and Turkish authorities would do well to redouble their efforts and quickly find an agreeable solution to the crisis. The risk is that tensions stemming from other developments seep over into the current investigation, politicizing its outcome and closing down room for potential compromise.

Halkbank will likely face a heavy fine and other senior members of the bank may join its deputy manager Atilla in facing US convictions. Ultimately, however, it is in the interests of both the US and Turkey to limit the political and economic fallout from the case. While marred in significant tensions, the US-Turkey relationship, like the broader West-Turkey alliance in NATO, is too valuable and fragile to risk expanding the court case into high level political indictments of Turkish officials.

Such an eventuality would effectively push Turkey closer to the Russian-Iranian axis and further complicate US and European interests in the economic, security and political domain, where important drivers of structural interdependence remain of significant benefit to both sides in the relationship. Skip to main content. IAI Commentaries. Publication date:.

How, for instance, did black ownership of real estate in the segregated South shape Jim Crow governance? To what extent has black business contributed toward struggles for political and social equality? Finally, we will assess the numerous black critics, including intellectuals, activists and working African Americans, of the American political economy. How have such men and women called attention to the ways race and class have combined to shape both black lives and black political subjectivity? This course is a survey of the history of African American men and women from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries through the Civil War and Reconstruction.

Among the major topics addressed: the slave trade in its moral and economic dimensions; African retentions in African American culture; origins of racism in colonial America; how blacks used the rhetoric and reality of the American and Haitian Revolutions to their advancement; antebellum slavery; black religion and family under slavery and freedom; the free black experience in the North and South; the crises of the s; the role of race and slavery in the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War; and the meaning of emancipation and Reconstruction for blacks.

Readings include historical monographs, slave narratives by men and women, and one work of fiction. This course will explore the life and times of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Through a deep engagement with his published work and public rhetoric, relevant secondary literature, and personal papers, students will locate the civil rights leader within the broader upheavals of mid-century America. As such, the course serves as an introduction to modern US history, the black freedom struggle, and the archive of civil rights. Moving beyond mythology, this course will emphasize his connections to American liberalism, the labor movement, the black prophetic tradition and human rights.

The magazines, the papers, the radio, and then the television networks sent their best to live and work in what were usually trying conditions, to try to conjure for the American media consumer a likeness of a country as fascinating as it was feared. We will focus more closely on American coverage of post-Communist Russia. How well or poorly have our correspondents done — and why? What are the practices that expand or limit our ability to learn what happens in Russia?

All readings and discussion in English. We will examine the theory and practice of diplomacy under the first President Bush, President Clinton, the second President Bush, and President Obama. At the heart of the course will be a consideration of the extent to which the United States has attempted and been able to sustain the unipolar power position in world politics that the United States gained with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

One two-and-a-half-hour meeting per week. Four themes are woven thought a roughly chronological structure. First, readings outline the competing purposes Americans envisioned for colleges and universities. Students analyze debates between proponents of broad training in the liberal arts and supporters of more narrow occupational preparation as well as disagreements over the appropriate relationship between research and teaching.

Second, the course explores student life, institutional access, and debates over the relationship between excellence and equity. Readings highlight patterns of exclusion based on race, class, ethnicity, religion, and gender that have marked the history of American higher education since its earliest days while also exploring the varied forces that eventually diversified student populations. How universities served as sites where class was both produced and contested in American culture will be a particular focus of analysis.

When addressing this theme, we will consider the post-World War II democratization of American higher education, the politics of college admissions, and stratification within and between post-secondary institutions. Third, the course raises questions about the power universities came to hold, in the half century following World War II, as centers of knowledge-making networks. We will examine how federal and philanthropic investment altered the role of the university in the twentieth century United States and created new types of expertise while also exploring how ties between the federal government, philanthropy, and the university affected late twentieth century social thought.

Finally, the course explores universities as political sites, with a particular focus on the consequences of student activism in the s and s and today. Some, like Syria's, are still raging; others, as in Egypt, appear to be in remission. Some states, particularly monarchies, seem to have proved immune.

This course will ask why these revolutions erupted, why they did so in , and why some states were transformed and others were not. We will rely on a political economy approach to these questions, exploring the interactions of the state, economy, society and ideology--especially political Islamthat led to the upheavals of and have shaped the evolution of the region since then.

Along the way, the course will cover the relationship between economic growth and social outcomes; the governance of Middle Eastern states from the end of colonial rule to the present; the role of demographics in shaping both politics and economics; human capital and food security; the role of gas and oil; models of development embraced by regional states or imposed upon them; intra-regional trade; the structure of civil society; dynamics of popular mobilization; and the effects of war. Indeed, U. The substantial overlap between security policy and the broader diplomatic, economic and cultural dimensions of the U.

Although the course presupposes a basic understanding of U. Their struggle continues today. This course considers the historical meanings of democracy in various Latin American countries, with particular attention to the relationship between liberalism and democracy in the nineteenth century; the broadening of democracy at the start of the twentieth century; the rise and fall of military dictatorships in the ss and their impact upon civil society; and the current clashes between neo-Liberal economic programs and the neo-populist resurgence of the left. Readings and discussions will focus on the ways broad economic and political shifts impacted individuals' lives; how each economic class experienced these shifts differently; the way race and gender have shaped peoples' experience with democratization and repression; and the personal processes of radicalization by which individuals became inspired to take risks in their struggle for inclusion and against repression.

Because the approach is thematic and chronological, some countries and regions will receive more attention than others. Meetings and readings will draw on secondary studies, historical documents, testimonials, music, images, and film. Two meetings per week. Professor R. This class will investigate the dynamism of Latin American societies beginning in the ancient or pre-conquest period and ending with the collapse of European rule in most Spanish, Portuguese, and French speaking territories in the New World.

We will explore this history through the eyes of various historical actors, including politicians, explorers, noble men and women, indigenous intellectuals, and African slaves. Through a mixture of lecture, small and large group activities, and analysis of primary and secondary sources we will also consider how historians understand the past as well as the foundational debates which shape our current interpretations of colonial Latin American history. Professor Hicks. Questions we will engage include: How have environmental changes contributed to, or otherwise conditioned, processes of conquest and domination?

How have these processes of conquest, domination, and resistance, in turn, altered the environmental? In what ways has environmental devastation been a rational response to the challenges people face, and in what ways has it been irrational? Can history guide us in our current efforts to develop a sustainable approach to the environment that helps the land and its fauna, but does so in a way that brings greater justice and self-determination to the people who live there, while at the same time balancing the interests of the state and of investors? The class will introduce students to classic texts in Latin American environmental history including the foundational studies by Warren Dean and Elinore Melville , as well as some of the newest scholarship.

This momentous historical event irrevocably reshaped the modern world. This class will trace the history of this transformation at two levels; first, we examine large scale historical processes including the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, the development of plantation economies, and the birth of liberal democracy. With these sweeping stories as our backdrop, we will also explore the lives of individual Africans and African-Americans, the communities they built, and the cultures they created.

We will consider the diversity of the Black Atlantic by examining the lives of a broad array of individuals, including black intellectuals, statesmen, soldiers, religious leaders, healers and rebels. Furthermore, we will pay special attention to trans-Atlantic historical formations common during this period, especially the contributions of Africans and their descendants to Atlantic cultures, societies, and ideas, ultimately understanding enslaved people as creative rather than reactive agents of history.

How can we understand both the commonalities and diversity of the experiences of Africans in the Diaspora? What kinds of communities, affinities and identities did Africans create after being uprooted by the slave trade? What methods do scholars use to understand this history? And finally, what is the modern legacy of the Black Atlantic? Class time will be divided between lecture, small and large group discussion. It focuses on the emergence and development of various movements opposed to caste-based inequality and injustice, as well as the ongoing search for social justice.

The course reviews scholarly debates about understanding this form of identification and social hierarchy, and examines the complex ways in which caste articulates with other social phenomena, like gender, class, religion, and nationality. It lays emphasis on the writings and work of key anti-caste thinkers and activists, in particular, Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, the preeminent leader of the Dalits, and a key figure in drafting the Constitution of India. Organized in three modules, the first situates Gandhi through consideration of the diverse sources of his own historical and ideological formation; the second examines the historical contexts and practices through which non-violence acquired meaning for him; the third considers the various afterlives of Gandhian politics in movements throughout the world.

We will examine autobiography and biography, Gandhi's collected works, various types of primary source, political, social, and intellectual history, and audio-visual materials. In addition to widely disseminated narratives of Gandhi as a symbol of non-violence, the course will also closely attend to the deep contradictions concerning race, caste, gender, and class that characterized his thought and action.

By unsettling conventional accounts of his significance, we will grapple with the problem of how to make sense of his troubled legacy. Prior familiarity with the subject matter is not required. Professor Sen. Before the revolution there was China--the civilization--with its long and complex history. In this course we will suspend this modern prejudice while asking a variety of questions on some specific topics. How did ancient laws and rituals come to define the relations between imperial states and local societies?

How and to what degree did they continue to do this as societies changed? How did world religions like Buddhism and Christianity come to cohabit with Confucian ethics and ancestral rites? How did complex networks of trade, manufacturing, and credit coexist and interact with global economies and powerful military states? How did cohorts of classically educated, literary and artistic men help to integrate ethnically and linguistically diverse peoples into a culturally consistent foundation against which, and upon which, the modern Chinese nation could be built? How did ordinary working people and especially women participate or react?

In each case we will discuss and develop our perspectives on how one thing led to another and then consider how modern views have tended to highlight or obscure the process. Sources include historical narratives and biographies, classical texts, philosophical and religious essays, family instructions, comparative historical analyses, fiction, and film. Reading and discussion. Offered as HIST [AF P ] and BLST [A] South African history is undergoing radical shifts in the way it is being written, read and interpreted, and this course will explore established and emerging themes in the history of this intriguing country.

The time period covered will span the precolonial indigenous cultures and move on to study the initiation and expansion of white settlement and its early dependence on slave labor. The course will also investigate African resistance, both in its political and cultural forms, as well as the social effects of gold-mining and migrant labor.

African nationalism, including the ANC, the Black Consciousness Movement, and the United Democratic Front, will be the focus of our study of the responses to apartheid and the ultimate collapse of the apartheid state. The course will end with discussions of recent events in South Africa, particularly the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and its aftermath as well as the developing AIDS epidemic and the growing problem of crime.

Art, trade, small-scale manufacturing, medical knowledge, religion, state systems, history and legend all flourished before the formal political take-over of the continent by European powers in the late nineteenth century. It is this varied history of states and cultures in the period before that this course will examine. The course will explore four topics in depth: slave-ownership within African societies and the impact of both the trans-Atlantic and east African slave trades; the interaction of religion and power on the rise and fall of the central African kingdom of Kongo; the genesis of the Zulu state in southern Africa and the historical evidence behind the contradictory histories of Tshaka; and the changing roles of women as economic, political, and social actors.

We will discuss some of the differences between oral historical narratives and written ones to understand both the history of the people living on the continent as well as the active process of writing and interpreting that history. Transnational in scope, this course will address the American South, the Caribbean and Africa, placing the history of colonialism and decolonization alongside--and in dialogue with--efforts to achieve racial justice in the United States. In turn, we will probe how the Global South simultaneously nurtured, and was created by, the emergence and development of a Black Radical Tradition, and broader notions of black diasporic identity.

Through close readings of primary sources, this course will establish pioneering intellectuals such as W. In turn, this course will assess the black radical's relationship to modes of thought particularly liberalism, nationalism and Marxism initially articulated outside the Global South.

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Finally, we will critically assess the extent, and limitations, of such efforts to "make the world anew. It will explore political, military, social and cultural history.

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Discussions involving Turkey should move beyond the narrow confines of the “ broader West” debate to focus on some of the critical issues that. Summary: Turkey is depicted as key to the coming together of an enlarged West, capable of confronting the challenges from the East. Discussions involving.

We will pay special attention to contested identities and inner debates within Zionism and Israel, highlighting different and occasionally opposing visions of a Jewish homeland. In addition to historical documents and books non-fiction and fiction , we will rely on the growing wealth of Israeli documentary films. This course offers an opportunity for history majors to reflect upon the practice of history. How do we claim to know anything about the past at all? How do historians construct the stories they tell about the past from the fragmentary remnants of former times? How do we judge the truth and value of these stories and memories?

The course explores questions such as these through readings and case studies drawn from a variety of places and times. Not open to first-year students. Limited to 25 students per semester; history majors will be given preference. Fall semester: Professor Boucher. This course examines how postcolonial African migration and transnational African populations in Western countries have shaped African states and societies in the global era. Drawing on key readings about the formation of nation-states in Africa and the historical sociology of transnationalism since World War II, we will discuss what concepts such as the nation-state, communal identity, global relations, and security mean in the African context and explore African transnational experiences in the context of state crisis and globalism.

The course also will focus on how African national and transnational encounters in the context of globalization consistently reflect African agency, revealing important discussions on homeland and diaspora, tradition and modernity, gender and generation. The course will begin by examining the global historical evolution of the notion of human rights, stressing the pivotal role of the American and French Revolutions in framing modern conceptions of rights in the late eighteenth century.

It will then examine the growth of international laws, institutions, and norms in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Finally, the course will explore the human rights dimensions of three major issues in contemporary politics: humanitarian intervention; the war on terror and national security; and global capitalism and working conditions.

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Considerable weight and attention will be given to human rights issues in the context of the United States and its domestic and international politics. At the same time, the universalizing nature of human rights and their global import compels us to think beyond cultural, political, and historical boundaries to challenge our assumptions about the meaning and form of universal rights. Offered as HIST [ c ], ASLC [WA] and RELI Conceptions of the religious and the secular that continue to resonate today assumed global significance in the course of the nineteenth century as colonial empires and nascent nation-states negotiated how they would govern heterogeneous populations and interact with each other.

Drawing on scholarship from a number of disciplines that historicize the categories of religion and secularity, this course will examine the political function of the religious and the secular as conceptual and regulatory categories in the 19th century. The second half of the course will apply these historiographic and theoretical concerns to East Asia and Japan in particular. Requirements will include two topical essays and one longer paper entailing modest research.

Limited to 15 students. Rather than fading into the memories of our past, the Second World War has grown in the public imagination, spurring a deluge of films and books on the experiences of combat, loss and survival.


Considered the most total conflict of world history, World War II wrought unparalleled destruction upon both soldiers and civilians across three continents. States harnessed levels of social mobilization and personal commitment to an extent not seen before or after. Through scholarly texts and original artifacts, this seminar explores the relationship between the destructive capacity of war and the effects on those who produce, are subject to, and must come to terms with its experience.

The course will focus on topics including: the social, economic, ideological and sexual complexities of wartime occupation; population movement and displacement; domestic mobilization; and the Holocaust. Limited to 18 students. Visiting Professor Trask. Beyond offering an important case study into the role, responsibility, and accountability of public intellectuals, this course will focus on the content and context of this group's radical conservative thought.

Our discussion will highlight five fields of knowledge that they attempted to reshape: theology, legal thought, race biology, geography, and political philosophy. Once the National Socialist party took power, its relations with Conservative Revolutionaries was anything but simple: some Conservative Revolutionaries joined the Nazi party or collaborated with the Nazi state. Many others, however, dissented, and claimed that Nazism distorted their ideas.

The posthumous legacy of these thinkers was equally ambivalent and unpredictable, while many sank into oblivion, some inspire and challenge not only contemporary rightwing movements and intellectuals, but also contemporary left. Professor A. On one level, it analyzes the factors that have impelled groups of people to cross borders. On another, it examines how these migrations have changed the social landscape of Europe, serving both to forge and to challenge the divides of culture, religion, and nationhood. Readings will relate to a variety of geographical locations, but with special emphasis on migration into and out of Britain, France, Germany, and their empires.

Limited to 35 students. Professor Boucher. Drawing on works from a range of disciplines, we focus on the intersection of market and culture, on how people have struggled to arrange and institutionalize market exchange, and how they have sought to make sense of those changing relations.

The course is built around a basic question that is also a current debate: What can we and what can we not buy and sell? And why?

To answer these questions, we first consider the foundational works that still govern our basic notions about the market society we live in. We then review several fields of our social lives that have been transformed through market exchange: What makes one good a gift and another a commodity? How can we set a price on the work we do? How did money make the world go around? Why am I often the sum of what I own? And what do these questions tell us about our relationship with each other and our things? We will consider both critical essays and historical case-studies.

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The goal of the course is to gain a historical and critical perspective on the making of a market society, provide approaches for applied research, and allow us to be conscious participants in the contemporary transformation of our own society. Limited to 20 students. Professor Cho. By contrast, students in this course will be asked to bring women, gender and sexuality from the margins to the center of Latin American history.

In doing so, we will reevaluate four transformative historical moments: the Spanish conquest, the wars of independence, the emergence of industrial capitalism, and the proliferation of late twentieth-century political revolutions. Through an exploration of these key periods of upheaval we will assess how social conflict was frequently mediated through competing definitions of masculinity and femininity. Furthermore, we will investigate how the domain of sexual practice and reproduction underpinned broader conflicts over racial purity, worker power, and the boundaries of citizenship in racially and ethnically diverse societies.

The course will culminate in a final research paper on a topic chosen by the student. In this course, students will explore the material, cultural, intellectual, linguistic and economic exchanges that defined the relationship between Western Africa and Brazil from to the present. Through this history, students will consider how this unique connection spurred new forms of transatlantic consciousness and identity in Brazilian society.

How is race related to ideas of civilization, order and progress? Does understanding black history outside of the United States challenge our ideas of how racial identities are created, experienced and maintained? And finally, is black consciousness universal? We will begin with a walking tour of Holyoke and an exploration of the making of a planned industrial city.

We will then investigate the experience of several key immigrant groups — principally Irish, French Canadian, Polish, and Puerto Rican — using both primary and secondary historical sources, as well as fiction. Students will write several papers on one or another immigrant group or a particular element of social experience, and a final research paper that explores in greater depth one of the topics touched upon in the course. The course will include students from Amherst College and Holyoke Community College and is open to all students, majors and non-majors.

All students will engage in some primary research, especially in the city archives and Wistariahurst Museum, in Holyoke. Amherst College history majors who wish to write a page research paper and thereby satisfy their major research requirement may do so in the context of this course.

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Classes will be held at both Amherst and Holyoke sites; transportation will be provided. Enrollment is limited to ten students per institution. Focusing on the United States, this course introduces students to foundational questions and texts central to the history of education and education studies.

We will explore the competing goals and priorities Americans have held for primary, secondary and post-secondary education and ask how and why these visions have influenced — or failed to influence — classrooms, schools, and educational policy. We will pay particular attention to sources of educational stratification; the tensions between the public and private purposes of schooling; and the relationship between schooling and equality.

In the first part of the course, students will reflect on how Americans have imagined the purpose of self-education, literacy, public schooling, and the liberal arts. Among the questions we will consider: What do Americans want from public schools? Does education promote liberation? Has a liberal arts education outlived its usefulness? How has the organization of schools and school systems promoted some educational objectives in lieu of others? In the second section of the course, we will concentrate on the politics of schooling. Here, we will pay particular attention to several issues central to understanding educational inequality and its relationship to American politics, culture, and society: localism; state and federal authority; desegregation; and the complicated relationship between schooling and racial, linguistic, class-based, gender, and ethnic hierarchies.

Finally, we will explore how competing ideas about the purpose and politics of education manifest themselves in current policy debates about privatization, charters, testing, and school discipline. Throughout the course, students will reflect on both the limits and possibilities of American schools to challenge and reconfigure the social order. Course assignments will consist of a mix of short papers and analytical reading exercises. One class meeting per week. It was also a decade fraught with contradictions. On the one hand, Americans experienced widespread disillusionment with the power of the federal government to promote and protect the minority from the majority.

Likewise, this was also a time of U. This course asks students to consider how connecting the local with the global can help us better understand and resolve these apparent contradictions. How does our understanding of American politics, society, and culture change depending upon our point of view? What are the possibilities and limitations of global and local methods of inquiry?

How might historians more fruitfully combine sub-disciplines to understand the ways in which Americans experienced and engaged with their historical realities as members of local, national, and global communities? At the same time, whether and how education can equalize the social, economic, and political order has generated considerable debate, especially in the twentieth century. Drawing on philosophy, history, sociology, anthropology, literature, and popular culture, this course focuses on three questions: What does educational equality mean?

Why should we equalize education? And can equal schools create an equal society? By exploring the many ways Americans answered—and argued over—these questions, the course investigates the promise and pitfalls of treating schooling as a social policy tool. Readings and discussions also examine efforts to link educational reform to reform in other policy arenas, namely employment, housing, social welfare, and criminal justice. We will ask the following questions: What were the everyday conditions of workers? How were ideals of "liberty" and "freedom" conceptualized?

How did enslaved African Americans experience this era? What were the prospects for women's educational and political advancement, both before and after the war? Was there in fact anything revolutionary about the American Revolution? The main course texts are social and cultural histories of the period as well as primary sources such as newspapers, novels, memoirs, broadsides, and political manifestos.

Central topics covered include maritime culture, urban poverty, women's work, colonialism, immigration, slavery, education, and politics. The course includes two field trips to regional historic sites. Students will conduct original research in local archives.

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This course will afford students the opportunity to experience the process of national security policy-making through role-play and intensive interaction mediated by visitors with extensive White House experience and direct involvement in significant strategic decisions. The first part of the course will explore the national security decision-making process instituted under the National Security Act of , its subsequent evolution, and the varied roles that national security advisors have played. McCloy Visiting Professor Simon. Or was it merely an evolution in the continuing exploitation of Black people throughout the Americas?

This course scrutinizes the complex economic, political, ideological, social and cultural contexts which caused and were remade by emancipation. Students are asked to consider emancipation as a global historical process unconstrained by the boundaries of the modern nation-state, while exploring the reasons for and consequences of emancipation from a trans-national perspective that incorporates the histories of the U. By focusing on the ideological ambiguities and lived experiences of enslaved people, political actors, abolitionists, religious leaders, employers and many others, this seminar will question what constitutes equality, citizenship, and freedom.

Finally the course will explore what role emancipated slaves played in shaping the historical meanings and practices of modern democracy. Comparing that empire to others across the globe, this course will consider how Japanese imperialism facilitated the complex circulation of goods, ideas, people and practices in modern Asia. We will ask how that complex circulation shaped Japan, as well as the colonial modernities of Taiwan, Korea, and Manchuria. Topics will include the formation of a regional imperial order in Asia, colony and metropole relations, gender and imperialism, regional migration, empire and total war, decolonization, and history and memory.

Requirements include short response papers and topical essays. Professor Maxey. We will examine the historical background leading to these events and Japanese American resistance to official actions including the cases of Yasui, Hirabayashi, Korematsu, and Endo which reached the U. Supreme Court. We will also explore the imposition of the draft upon men behind barbed wire and those who became draft resisters. Their project thus engaged broader methodological questions and problems about how to write histories of the marginal.

Combining theoretical statements with selections from the volume series as well as individual monographs, our readings and discussion will chart the overall trajectory of Subaltern Studies from its initial moorings in the works of the Italian Marxian theorist Antonio Gramsci to its later grounding in the critique of colonial discourse.

The objective is to understand how this school of history-writing transformed the understanding of modern South Asian history. Using predominantly primary material, we will chart the emergence, success, and evolution of Islam, the Islamic community, and the Islamic polity. We concentrate on exploring the growth of the historical tradition of Islam and its continued contestations amongst scholars today.

This course will familiarize students with the events, persons, ideas, texts and historical debates concerning this period. It is not a course on the religion or beliefs of Islam, but a historical deconstruction and analysis of the period. This class is writing intensive. Its consumption is deeply wedded to leading religious and secular traditions around the world. Its production has transformed landscapes, ecosystems, and economies.

In this course we examine how wine has shaped the history of Europe, North Africa, and the Americas. Through readings, scientific study, historical research, and class discussion, students will learn about such issues as: the environmental impact of wine; the politics of taste and class; the organization of labor; the impact of imperialism and global trade; the late nineteenth-century phylloxera outbreak that almost destroyed the European wine industry; and the emergence of claims about terroir the notion that each wine, like each culture, is uniquely tied to a place and how such claims are tied to regional and national identity.

Through class discussion, focused research and writing workshops, and close mentoring, each student will learn about wine while designing and executing an independent research project. We will also get our hands dirty with soil sampling, learn the basics of sediment analysis in the laboratory, and have a go at fermentation.

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This is a research seminar open to juniors and seniors. Priority given to history and environmental studies majors. Physicians often say that medicine became truly effective in the mid-twentieth century when an avalanche of new remedies became available, first in Europe and North America but soon thereafter around the world. The new medicines offered patients relief from dread diseases and physicians long-awaited validation of the power of scientific medicine. For a generation that came of age in the s and s, they testified to the creative and beneficent powers of science.

Many of our current debates over drug development, testing, marketing, and pricing commenced in the s, as newly-introduced drugs helped reshape health care. All participants in the seminar will be required to write a research paper of at least 20 pages involving the use of primary sources. Professor Servos. By positing a new form of human identity, it has liberated and enslaved, built and destroyed. Most importantly it persisted by presenting itself as a natural fact of human life.

Studying nationalism, therefore, is an act of self-exploration, whether we regard ourselves as national or not.

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If we simply call anyone, anywhere who is secular, empirical and generally liberal as Western, then the culture loses all geographical meaning. I grabbed my camera, went to the roof, and shot these videos: As I was on the roof, the distant explosions and gunfire from the Bosphorous bridge took a turn for the worse, with soldiers opening fire to ward off the flag waving crowds collecting two blocks away in Taksim Square. Jump to Page. Turkeys Accession to the European Union: An Unusual Candidacy is a splendid combination of 17 research papers published under the editorship of Constantine Arvanitopoulos, Professor of International Relations at Panteion University Athens and the Director of the Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy, seeking to provide a comprehensive examination of political, security and socio-economical dimensions of Turkeys membership process. Abidin Unal, and other key air force generals would all be at a wedding, which would give the air force freedom to act against the government.

Yet, though nationalism has shaped the modern age, people strongly disagree on its most basic concepts: What are nations? When did they emerge? What is their future? This research seminar will begin with a systematic and comparative study of the key theories of nationalism, seeking to understand both their claims and historical contexts. From this theoretical foundation, the seminar will explore case studies from different epochs and continents. Finally the course will culminate in individual student research projects, consisting of a page research paper and a final presentation as part of a mini-conference event.

Enrollment requires attendance at the first class meeting. Yet recent research in economic history and shifts in the world economy have provided new perspectives to reconsider the rise of the European economy. How was Europe able to reposition itself from a periphery of the Eurasian economy to a central node of the global economy? What drove Europeans further and further into the East and how did their incursions disrupt or adapt to previous trade networks and practices?