Such an experimentally founded work can be considered a unique contribution to Pharmacology at the time; nothing comparable had been attempted until then, as Anthony Campbell writes. In Hahnemann moved to Leipzig. There he succeeded in with another scientific work "De Helleborismo veterum", i. Hahnemann actually became the founder of a curative direction, gathered students around him, was able to continue his drug testing program with new powers especially his students and his eldest son and hold lectures on homeopathy - and became involved in extensive academic feuds, since he also had fierce opponents among the medical professors.
For example, there was a discussion with Karl Heinrich Dzondi of the University of Halle about the question of whether cold or rather warm water should be used for burns as an example of the "Contraria" - against the principle of similarity.
In the second volume of his "Reine Arzneimittellehre" was published, in the second edition of the "Organon der Heilkunst", now with the enlightening motto " aude sapere " "Dare to know" by Horaz, which had become so famous through Kant's definition of the Enlightenment. Hahnemann also gave lectures on the history of medicine, which, unlike the lectures on homeopathy, were unproblematic. During his time in Leipzig, Hahnemann also maintained an extensive practice.
The seriously ill prince, who had already made use of all sorts of other doctors, finally died in October despite all his efforts. This was also the time of the "Leipzig dispensing dispute": Hahnemann, who had chemical and pharmaceutical knowledge, insisted on being allowed to prepare his homeopathic medicines himself, which three Leipzig pharmacists sued him for, since only the pharmacists had the privilege of producing medicines. The dispute ended in with a compromise: the pharmacists retained their traditional [dispensing law], but Hahnemann was also allowed to prepare medicines himself in emergencies, especially in the countryside.
In he was appointed Court Councillor. While he adhered to the principle of similarity, Hahnemann found that simple homeopathic medication did not help with certain chronic diseases.
He divided them into three types: venereal diseases syphilis ] and "sykosis" "genital wart disease" and the deficiency disease " psora ", under which he calculated a large number of different disease manifestations and which he associated with skin symptoms of the scrotal blister type. In these cases, the principle of similarity should not be applied primarily to the current symptoms of the disease, but to the "primal evils" that had caused chronic illness and continued to affect patients' lives in the form of" Miasmas ", as it were of a permanent nature. The drugs he presented in the five volumes of "Chronic Diseases", which he gradually published and which were experimentally tested on healthy people, should also be able to combat the psoriasis.
A further, later even sharper formulated stone of impetus was the new doctrine of the medicine potentization : Hahnemann now announced that the method of dilution with simultaneous mechanical processing shaking, rubbing would not only produce drugs with fewer side effects, indeed that this special method would only truly open up its healing powers. Also in this teaching his students did not follow him unconditionally.
At the same time Hahnemann, who had previously dispensed with a theoretical explanation of his principle of similarity and described it as a purely empirical law, began to approach the doctrine of Vitalism , which earned him applause from the famous Hufeland, among others. In the fourth and especially the fifth edition of the Organon he gave a prominent place to an immaterial [vitality] of the organism, which had not played a role in the first Organon editions, in the argumentation for the principle of similarity, albeit in the form of a hypothesis: "Since this natural healing law the principle of similarity is notarized in all pure attempts and all outlawed experiences of the world, so the fact insists, then little depends on the scientific explanation of how this is going on, and I set little value on trying such things.
However, the following view proves to be the most probable, as it is based on a wealth of experience. It is particularly remarkable that Hahnemann rightly regarded cholera as an infectious disease transmitted by "the finest animals of the lower order"  and recommended at least in the initial phase a kind of antiseptic therapy in the form of a camphor application; the fact that Hahnemann strictly contradicted all weakening measures and above all declared the drinking ban recommended by other doctors to be absurd may have contributed to the relative success of homeopathy in cholera.
The s also saw fierce battles for the purity of the new doctrine, which took shape in particular in the conflicts over the first homeopathic hospital in Leipzig, which was founded in Hahnemann took a strong stand against any attempt to combine homeopathy with conventional, in particular weakening agents such as bloodletting or laxatives. The conflicts with the "semi-homoeopaths" did not break off afterwards. It came to a stormy love story with the now seventy-nine year old doctor, which led to Hahnemann's second marriage. Together with his 45 years younger wife he soon moved to Paris.
Hahnemann spent his last eight years in Paris as a respected and busy doctor. He discontinued treatment after his approach to Hahnemann's wife was brusquely rejected by her. The painter Amaury Duval was called to the hospital bed to still portray her and advised to call Hahnemann. He succeeded in curing them . The remaining medical records of the Parisian period have only been partially evaluated and should offer further surprises.
In recent years, Hahnemann has worked on a 6th edition of his Organon , which contained new regulations for drug preparation 'potentization' , especially on the later so-called Q-potencies with particularly large dilution steps of ,, over which there has been a virulent rumor mill for almost a century. A version published after Hahnemann's death of Arthur Lutze is considered inauthentic.
These initial considerations are the basis for a new paradigm of literary historiography in a view of literature beyond national limits which includes spatial dynamism, cross-border movements and a concept of transatlantic literature beyond the notions of centre and periphery. The United States are labeled Freye Staaten with the frontier showing a huge Indiana, an incompletely formed Kentucki , and Georgia taking in all the region to the Mississippi, including the area of Tennessee. Scroll over to zoom Click for full size. Berlin: de Gruyter, a. Lustig, Wolf. It has remained the theoretical work of homeopathy to this day.
Hahnemann died in Paris on July 2, , presumably from pneumonia. Hahnemann's gravestone bears the inscription '"Non inutilis vixi" at his personal request. Her third novel Calcutta, published in , will be published in German translation in August Sinha has published numerous volumes of poetry in French and Bengali. Assommons les pauvres! German title: Erschlagt die Armen!
She has been co-publisher and editor of the French language magazine timult since and has worked as a freelance translator and author since In she was awarded a scholarship from the Goldschmidt Program for young literary translators. EN More Search Deutsch. Visit Accessibility Tickets Press.
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